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  • Asphalt roll roofing


    modified bitumen roll roofing.Asphalt roll roofing or membrane is a roofing material commonly used for buildings that feature a low sloped roof pitch in North America. The material is based on the same materials used in asphalt shingles; an organic felt or fiberglass mat, saturated with asphalt, and faced with granular stone aggregate. 1. Overview ----------- Roll roofing is usually restricted to a lightweight mat compared to shingles, as it must be rolled for shipment. Rolls are typically by in size. Due to its light weight compared to shingles, roll roofing is regarded as an inexpensive, temporary material. Its broad width makes it vulnerable to temperature-induced shrinkage and tearing as it expands and contracts. Other names for this material are "asphalt prepared roofing, asphaltic felt, cold-process roofing, prepared roofing, rolled roofing, rolled strip roofing, roofing felt, sanded bituminous felt, saturated felt, self-finished roofing felt." Roll roofing is normally applied parallel to the eaves from the bottom of the roof upwards, lapping each new roll in the same manner as shingles. Its use is restricted to roofs with a pitch of less than 2:12. To avoid penetrating the exposed membrane with nails, adhesive or "lap cement" must be used at the bottom edge to keep it from being lifted by the wind. The upper edge of the roll is nailed and covered by the next roll. Historical Development: The asphalt-prepared roofing industry had its beginning in Sweden more than a century ago, when roof boards were covered with paper treated with wood tar. Later, in Germany, paper was coated with varnish, surfaced with finely ground mineral matter, and used as a roofing material. In the United States, asphalt was used to waterproof duck fabric in the early part of the nineteenth century. The first recorded use of melted asphalt for impregnating duck fabric in this country was in 1844. About this time roofs composed of sheets of sheathing paper treated with pine tar and pine pitch, and surfaced with fine sand, were being laid. Coal tar and coal- tar pitch were later substituted for the pine tar. These were the forerunners of the present asphalt and coal-tar-pitch built-up roofs. It is not known definitely when felt was first substituted for sheathing paper or when asphalt was first used as the impregnating agent, but it is known that the first asphalt-prepared roofing, that is, roofing manufactured ready to apply, was marketed in 1893. The first roofing was not surfaced. Mineral-surfaced, asphalt-prepared roofing appeared in 1897. The first asphalt shingles, mineral-surfaced, were made in 1901, and about this time slate grain less were first used as a surfacing material. Asphalt shingles did not come into general use until about 1911. During 1939, thirty-two manufacturers, representing about 95 percent of the asphalt-prepared roofing industry, produced 34,225,187 squares ^ of prepared roofing. Almost one third of this, 11,173,856 squares, was in the form of asphalt shingles, which are used principally for roofing dwellings. The shingles produced in 1939 were sufficient to cover more than 1,000,000 dwellings, assuming an average size of 10 squares per roof. In two surveys of roofing materials in 20 Eastern States, - made during 1938, the kinds of roofing materials on 20,841 dwellings along 4,038 miles of highway were tabulated. Of these dwellings, 6,549 were roofed with asphalt shingles and 2,381 with asphalt roll roofing. Thus, almost 43 percent of these dwelling were roofed with asphalt-prepared roofing. Statistics of the Bureau of the Census indicate that asphalt-prepared roll roofing and shingles constituted slightly less than half of all the roofing materials sold during 1937.

  • Effects of Hurricane Wilma in Florida


    The effects of Hurricane Wilma in Florida were catastrophic, becoming the then second-costliest Florida hurricane ever recorded. Hurricane Wilma was first evident near Jamaica and was classified as a hurricane on October 18. Initially, orange future prices soared on October 19, 2005. As the system drew closer, schools and government offices closed on October 21. Professional and college sports games were rescheduled during Wilma's advance towards Florida. Evacuations were ordered for southwestern Florida and the Keys. As the storm made landfall, a storm surge swept into coastal sections of southern Florida and high winds led to significant damage near and along Wilma's path, particularly to the power grid. Some locations were without power for 2–3 weeks after the storm. Wilma spawned ten tornadoes in Florida. At least 35 Wilma-related deaths were reported in the United States, all in Florida. Wilma was also blamed for at least 26 indirect deaths. Damage in Florida totaled $18.6 billion (2005 USD; $23.5 billion 2018 USD).

  • Asphalt shingle


    A ridge cap on a 3-tab asphalt shingle roof is composed of individual shingle "tabs" folded over the ridge and nailed partially overlapping one-another An asphalt shingle is a type of wall or roof shingle that uses asphalt for waterproofing. It is one of the most widely used roofing covers in North America because it has a relatively inexpensive up-front cost and is fairly simple to install.

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