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  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    serch.it?q=Acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes. Symptoms may include feeling tired, pale skin color, fever, easy bleeding or bruising, enlarged lymph nodes, or bone pain. As an acute leukemia, ALL progresses rapidly and is typically fatal within weeks or months if left untreated. In most cases, the cause is unknown. Genetic risk factors may include Down syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, or neurofibromatosis type 1. Environmental risk factors may include significant radiation exposure or prior chemotherapy. Evidence regarding electromagnetic fields or pesticides is unclear. Some hypothesize that an abnormal immune response to a common infection may be a trigger. The underlying mechanism involves multiple genetic mutations that results in rapid cell division. The excessive immature lymphocytes in the bone marrow interfere with the production of new red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Diagnosis is typically based on blood tests and bone marrow examination. ALL is typically treated initially with chemotherapy aimed at bringing about remission. This is then followed by further chemotherapy typically over a number of years. Additional treatments may include intrathecal chemotherapy or radiation therapy if spread to the brain has occurred. Stem cell transplantation may be used if the disease recurs following standard treatment. Additional treatments such as immunotherapy are being studied. ALL affected about 876,000 people globally in 2015 and resulted in about 111,000 deaths. It occurs most commonly in children, particularly those between the ages of two and five. In the United States it is the most common cause of cancer and death from cancer among children. ALL is notable for being the first disseminated cancer to be cured. Survival for children increased from under 10% in the 1960s to 90% in 2015. Survival rates remain lower for babies (50%) and adults (35%).

  • MALT lymphoma

    serch.it?q=MALT-lymphoma

    MALT lymphoma (MALToma) is a form of lymphoma involving the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), frequently of the stomach, but virtually any mucosal site can be afflicted. It is a cancer originating from B cells in the marginal zone of the MALT, and is also called extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma.

  • Waldenström's macroglobulinemia

    serch.it?q=Waldenström's-macroglobulinemia

    Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM), also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of cancer affecting two types of B cells, lymphoplasmacytoid cells and plasma cells. Both cell types are white blood cells. WM is characterized by having high levels of a circulating antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM), which is made and secreted by the cells involved in the disease. WM is an "indolent lymphoma" (i.e., one that tends to grow and spread slowly) and a type of lymphoproliferative disease which shares clinical characteristics with the indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas. WM is commonly classified as a form of plasma cell dyscrasia. Similar to other plasma cell dyscrasias that, for example, lead to multiple myeloma, WM is commonly preceded by two clinically asymptomatic but progressively more pre-malignant phases, IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (i.e. IgM MGUS) and smoldering Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. The WM spectrum of dysplasias differs from other spectrums of plasma cell dyscrasias in that it involves not only aberrant plasma cells but also aberrant lymphoplasmacytoid cells and that it involves IgM while other plasma dyscrasias involve other antibody isoforms. WM is a rare disease, with only about 1,500 cases per year in the United States. WM occurs more frequently in older adults. While the disease is incurable, it is treatable. Because of its indolent nature, many patients are able to lead active lives, and when treatment is required, may experience years of symptom-free remission.

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