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  • Pressure switch

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    Murphy oil pressure gauges with switches that activate on low pressure A pressure switch is a form of switch that closes an electrical contact when a certain set fluid pressure has been reached on its input. The switch may be designed to make contact either on pressure rise or on pressure fall. Pressure switches are widely used in industry to automatically supervise and control systems that use pressurized fluids. Another type of pressure switch detects mechanical force; for example, a pressure-sensitive mat is used to automatically open doors on commercial buildings. Such sensors are also used in security alarm applications such as pressure sensitive floors.

  • Pressure regulator

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    Oxygen and MAPP gas cylinders with two-stage pressure regulators A pressure regulator is a control valve that reduces the input pressure of a fluid to a desired value at its output. Regulators are used for gases and liquids, and can be an integral device with an output pressure setting, a restrictor and a sensor all in the one body, or consist of a separate pressure sensor, controller and flow valve.

  • Float switch

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    A float switch is a type of level sensor, a device used to detect the level of liquid within a tank. The switch may be used to control a pump, as an indicator, an alarm, or to control other devices. One type of float switch uses a mercury switch inside a hinged float. Another common type is a float that raises a rod to actuates a microswitch. One pattern uses a reed switch mounted in a tube; a float, containing a magnet, surrounds the tube and is guided by it. When the float raises the magnet to the reed switch, it closes. Several reeds can be mounted in the tube for different level indications by one assembly. File:Float_switch_on.jpg|float switch on File:Float_switch_off.jpg|float switch off A very common application is in sump pumps and condensate pumps where the switch detects the rising level of liquid in the sump or tank and energizes an electrical pump which then pumps liquid out until the level of the liquid has been substantially reduced, at which point the pump is switched off again. Float switches are often adjustable and can include substantial hysteresis. That is, the switch's "turn on" point may be much higher than the "shut off" point. This minimizes the on-off cycling of the associated pump. Some float switches contain a two-stage switch. As liquid rises to the trigger point of the first stage, the associated pump is activated. If the liquid continues to rise (perhaps because the pump has failed or its discharge is blocked), the second stage will be triggered. This stage may switch off the source of the liquid being pumped, trigger an alarm, or both. A sump pump with a float switch.Where level must be sensed inside a pressurized vessel, often a magnet is used to couple the motion of the float to a switch located outside the pressurized volume. In some cases, a rod through a stuffing box can be used to operate a switch, but this creates high drag and has a potential for leakage. Successful float switch installations minimize the opportunity for accumulation of dirt on the float that would impede its motion. Float switch materials are selected to resists the deleterious effects of corrosive process liquids. In some systems, a properly selected and sized float can be used to sense the interface level between two liquids of different density.

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