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  • Waste management

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    Waste management in Kathmandu, Nepal Waste management in Stockholm, Sweden Waste management in ParisWaste management (or waste disposal) are the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process. Waste can be solid, liquid, or gaseous and each type has different methods of disposal and management. Waste management deals with all types of waste, including industrial, biological and household. In some cases waste can pose a threat to human health. Waste is produced by human activity, for example the extraction and processing of raw materials. Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on human health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management practices are not uniform among countries (developed and developing nations); regions (urban and rural areas), and residential and industrial sectors can all take different approaches.

  • Automated vacuum collection

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    An automated vacuum waste collection system, also known as pneumatic refuse collection, or automated vacuum collection (AVAC), transports waste at high speed through underground pneumatic tubes to a collection station where it is compacted and sealed in containers. When the container is full, it is transported away and emptied. The system helps facilitate separation and recycling of waste. The process begins with the deposit of trash into intake hatches, called portholes, which may be specialized for waste, recycling, or compost. Portholes are located in public areas and on private property where the owner has opted in. The waste is then pulled through an underground pipeline by air pressure difference created by large industrial fans, in response to porthole sensors that indicate when the trash needs to be emptied and help ensure that only one kind of waste material is travelling through the pipe at a time. The pipelines converge on a central processing facility that uses automated software to direct the waste to the proper container, from there to be trucked to its final location, such as a landfill or composting plant.

  • Pay as you throw

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    Pay as you throw (PAYT) (also called trash metering, unit pricing, variable rate pricing, or user-pay) is a usage-pricing model for disposing of municipal solid waste. Users are charged a rate based on how much waste they present for collection to the municipality or local authority. A variety of models exist depending on the region and municipality. Waste is measured by weight or size while units are identified using different types of bags, tags, containers or even RFID. Services for waste diversion, like recycling and composting, are often provided free of charge where pay-as-you-throw systems are implemented. There are three main types of pay-as-you-throw programmes: - Full-unit pricing: users pay for all the garbage they want collected in advance by purchasing a tag, custom bag, or selected size container. - Partial-unit pricing: the local authority or municipality decides on a maximum number of bags or containers of garbage, with collection paid for by taxes.

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