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  • Urethrotomy

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    A urethrotomy is an operation which involves incision of the urethra, especially for relief of a stricture. It is most often performed in the outpatient setting, with the patient (usually) being discharged from the hospital or surgery center within six hours from the procedure's inception. Urethrotomy (also referred to as DVIU, or Direct Visual Internal Urethrotomy) is a popular treatment for male urethral strictures. However, the performance characteristics are poor. Success is less than 9% for the first or subsequent urethrotomies. Most patients will be expected to experience failure with longer followup and the expected long-term success rate from any urethrotomy approach is 0%. Beginning in 2003, several urology residency programs in the northeastern section of the United States began advocating the use of urethrotomy as initial treatment in the young stricture patient, versus urethral dilatation. It is theorized that the one-to-two years of relief from stricture disease will allow the practitioner and the patient to plan the most effective treatment regimen without having the concern that undergoing multiple dilitations cloud the judgment of the patient.

  • Orchiectomy

    serch.it?q=Orchiectomy

    Orchiectomy (also named orchidectomy, and sometimes shortened as orchi) is a surgical procedure in which one or both testicles are removed. The removal of both testicles (bilateral orchiectomy) is the surgical form of castration. There are three main types of orchiectomy: simple, subcapsular, and inguinal. The first two types are usually done under local or epidural anesthesia, and take about 30 minutes to perform. An inguinal orchiectomy is sometimes done under general anesthesia, and takes from 30 minutes to an hour to complete.

  • Bladder cancer

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    Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder. It is a disease in which cells grow abnormally and have the potential to spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms include blood in the urine, pain with urination, and low back pain. Risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking, family history, prior radiation therapy, frequent bladder infections, and exposure to certain chemicals. The most common type is transitional cell carcinoma. Other types include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Diagnosis is typically by cystoscopy with tissue biopsies. Staging of the cancer is typically determined by medical imaging such as CT scan and bone scan. Treatment depends on the stage of the cancer. It may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy. Surgical options may include transurethral resection, partial or complete removal of the bladder, or urinary diversion. Typical five-year survival rates in the United States are 77%. Bladder cancer, as of 2015, affects about 3.4 million people globally with 430,000 new cases a year. In 2015 it resulted in 188,000 deaths. Age of onset is most often between 65 and 85 years of age. Males are more often affected than females. In the United States in 2018 81,000 cases and 17,000 deaths are expected making it the 6th most common type of cancer in the region.

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