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  • Menopause

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    Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children. Menopause typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age. Medical professionals often define menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any vaginal bleeding for a year. It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries. In those who have had surgery to remove their uterus but still have ovaries, menopause may be viewed to have occurred at the time of the surgery or when their hormone levels fell. Following the removal of the uterus, symptoms typically occur earlier, at an average of 45 years of age. In the years before menopause, a woman's periods typically become irregular, which means that periods may be longer or shorter in duration or be lighter or heavier in the amount of flow. During this time, women often experience hot flashes; these typically last from 30 seconds to ten minutes and may be associated with shivering, sweating, and reddening of the skin. Hot flashes often stop occurring after a year or two.

  • Hormone replacement therapy

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    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also known as menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), is a form of hormone therapy which is used to treat symptoms associated with menopause in women. These symptoms can include hot flashes, vaginal atrophy and dryness, and bone loss, among others, and are caused by diminished levels of sex hormones in the menopausal period. The main hormonal medications used in HRT for menopausal symptoms are estrogens and progestogens. A progestogen is usually used in combination with an estrogen in women with intact uteruses because unopposed estrogen therapy is associated with endometrial hyperplasia and cancer and progestogens prevent these risks. Androgens, like testosterone, are sometimes used in HRT as well. HRT medications are available in various forms and for use by a variety of different routes of administration. The 2002 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) found disparate results for all cause mortality with HRT, finding it to be lower when HRT was begun earlier, between age 50 to 59, but higher when begun after age 60.

  • International Menopause Society

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    The International Menopause Society (IMS) is a UK based charity. The Association was created in 1978 in Jerusalem during the second Menopause Congress and currently has members in 62 countries. In addition to organizing congresses, symposia, and workshops, the IMS owns its own journal: Climacteric, the Journal of Adult Women's Health and Medicine, published by Informa Healthcare. The IMS has three sub-organs: CAMS, the Council of Affiliated Menopause Societies, the WSSM, the World School for the Study of the Menopause and the CPP, the Council of Past Presidents.

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