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  • Mod (video gaming)


    A mod (short for "modification") is an alteration by players or fans of a video game that changes one or more aspects of a video game, such as how it looks or behaves. Mods may range from small changes and tweaks to complete overhauls, and can extend the replay value and interest of the game. Modding a game can also be understood as the act of seeking and installing mods to the player's game, but the act of tweaking pre-existing settings and preferences is not truly modding. Mods have arguably become an increasingly important factor in the commercial success of some games, as they add a depth to the original work, and can be both useful to players and a means of self-expression. People can become fans of specific mods, in addition to fans of the game they are for, such as requesting features and alterations for these mods. In cases where mods are very popular, players might have to clarify that they are referring to the unmodified game when talking about playing a game. The term vanilla is often used to make this distinction. "Vanilla Battlefield 1942", for example, refers to the original, unmodified game.

  • Valve Anti-Cheat


    Valve Anti-Cheat (VAC) is an anti-cheat software developed by Valve Corporation as a component of the Steam platform, first released with Counter-Strike in 2002. When the software detects a cheat on a player's system, it will ban them in the future, possibly days or weeks after the original detection. It may kick players from the game if it detects errors in their system's memory or hardware. No information such as date of detection or type of cheat detected is disclosed to the player. After the player is notified, access to online "VAC protected" servers of the game the player cheated in is permanently revoked and additional restrictions are applied to the player's Steam account. During one week of November 2006, the system detected over 10,000 cheating attempts.

  • Shellshock (software bug)


    A simple Shellshock logo, similar to the Heartbleed bug logoShellshock, also known as Bashdoor, is a family of security bugs in the widely used Unix Bash shell, the first of which was disclosed on 24 September 2014. Many Internet-facing services, such as some web server deployments, use Bash to process certain requests, allowing an attacker to cause vulnerable versions of Bash to execute arbitrary commands. This can allow an attacker to gain unauthorized access to a computer system. Stéphane Chazelas contacted Bash's maintainer, Chet Ramey, on 12 September 2014 telling Ramey about his discovery of the original bug, which he called "Bashdoor". Working together with security experts, he soon had a patch as well. The bug was assigned the identifier '. It was announced to the public on when Bash updates with the fix were ready for distribution. The first bug causes Bash to unintentionally execute commands when the commands are concatenated to the end of function definitions stored in the values of environment variables.

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