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  • Gabapentin

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    Gabapentin (sold under the brand name Neurontin, among others) is a medication which is used to treat partial seizures, neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome. It is recommended as one of a number of first-line medications for the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and central neuropathic pain. About 15% of those given gabapentin for diabetic neuropathy or postherpetic neuralgia have a measurable benefit. Gabapentin is taken by mouth. Common side effects of gabapentin include sleepiness and dizziness. Serious side effects include an increased risk of suicide, aggressive behavior, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. It is unclear if it is safe during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Lower doses are recommended in those with kidney disease associated with a low glomerular filtration rate. Gabapentin is a gabapentinoid: it has a structure similar to that of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acts by inhibiting certain calcium channels. Gabapentin was first approved for use in 1993. It has been available as a generic medication in the United States since 2004. The wholesale price in the developing world was about per month; in the United States, it was US$100 to US$200. In 2016 it was the 11th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 44 million prescriptions. During the 1990s, Parke-Davis, a subsidiary of Pfizer, began using a number of illegal techniques to encourage physicians in the United States to use gabapentin for off-label (unapproved) uses. They have paid out millions of dollars to settle lawsuits regarding these activities.

  • Indometacin

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    Indometacin (INN; or USAN indomethacin) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used as a prescription medication to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling from inflammation. It works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, endogenous signaling molecules known to cause these symptoms. It does this by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, an enzyme that catalyzes the production of prostaglandins. It is marketed under more than twelve different trade names. As of 2015 the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is less than 25 USD.

  • Naproxen

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    Naproxen, sold under the brand names Aleve and Naprosyn among others, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat pain, menstrual cramps, inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and fever. It is taken by mouth. It is available in an immediate and delay release formulation. Onset of effects is within an hour and last for up to twelve hours. Common side effects include dizziness, headache, bruising, allergic reactions, heartburn, and stomach pain. Severe side effects include an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, gastrointestinal bleeding, and stomach ulcers. The heart disease risk may be lower than with other NSAIDs. It is not recommended in people with kidney problems. Use is not recommended in the third trimester of pregnancy. Naproxen is a nonselective COX inhibitor. It is in the propionic acid class of medications. As an NSAID, naproxen appears to exert its anti-inflammatory action by reducing the production of inflammatory mediators called prostaglandins. It is metabolized by the liver to inactive metabolites. Naproxen was approved for medical use in the United States in 1976. It is available as a generic medication and over the counter. In the United Kingdom is costs about 0.15 pounds per dose. In the United States the wholesale cost per dose is less than US$0.10 as of 2018. In 2016 it was the 68th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 11 million prescriptions.

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