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  • Melanosis coli


    Micrograph of melanosis coli, with the characteristic mucosal lipofuscin-laden macrophages (brown).Melanosis coli, also pseudomelanosis coli, is a disorder of pigmentation of the wall of the colon, often identified at the time of colonoscopy. It is benign, and may have no significant correlation with disease. The brown pigment is lipofuscin in macrophages, not melanin.

  • Alopecia areata


    Alopecia areata, also known as spot baldness, is a condition in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body. Often it results in a few bald spots on the scalp, each about the size of a coin. Psychological stress may result. People are generally otherwise healthy. In a few, all the hair on the scalp or all body hair is lost and loss can be permanent. Alopecia areata is believed to be an autoimmune disease resulting from a breach in the immune privilege of the hair follicles. Risk factors include a family history of the condition. Among identical twins if one is affected the other has about a 50% chance of also being affected. The underlying mechanism involves failure by the body to recognize its own cells with subsequent immune mediated destruction of the hair follicle. There is no cure for the condition. Efforts may be used to try to speed hair regrowth such as cortisone injections. Sunscreen, head coverings to protect from cold and sun, and glasses if the eyelashes are missing is recommended. In some cases the hair regrows and the condition does not reoccur. In others hair loss and regrowth occurs over years. Among those in whom all body hair is lost less than 10% recover. About 0.15% of people are affected at any one time and 2% of people are affected at some point in time. Onset is usually in childhood. Males and females have the condition in equal numbers. The condition does not affect a person's life expectancy.

  • Goldenseal


    Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), also called orangeroot or yellow puccoon, is a perennial herb in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native to southeastern Canada and the eastern United States. It may be distinguished by its thick, yellow knotted rootstock. The stem is purplish and hairy above ground and yellow below ground where it connects to the yellow rhizome. Goldenseal mostly reproduces clonally through the rhizome. The plant bears two palmate, hairy leaves with 5–7 double-toothed lobes and single, small, inconspicuous flowers with greenish-white stamens in the late spring. In summer, it bears a single berry the size of a large raspberry with 10–30 seeds. It is most known due to its use in traditional medicine. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to determine if goldenseal has a justifiably good therapeutic index for any conditions. Research into the efficacy of goldenseal for a variety of uses is ongoing. In herbalism, goldenseal's roots and rhizomes have been historically harvested and claimed to be a safe and effective multi-purpose remedy. Currently, some herbalists who support the use of goldenseal claim the herb's efficacy is due to high concentrations of berberine and hydrastine. The herb is believed to possess some measure of anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial, and immune system-enhancing properties. Goldenseal is used to purportedly control muscle spasms, treat cancer, stimulate the heart and increase blood pressure, treat gastrointestinal disorders, treat conjunctivitis, manage painful and heavy menstruation, treat infections topically, reduce swelling and alleviate edema. Goldenseal may be purchased in salve, tablet, tincture form or as a bulk powder. It is often used to boost the medicinal effects of other herbs with which it is blended or formulated. A second species from Japan, previously listed as Hydrastis palmatum, is now usually classified in another genus, as Glaucidium palmatum.

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