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  • Alzheimer's disease

    serch.it?q=Alzheimer's-disease

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time. It is the cause of 60–70% of cases of dementia. The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss). As the disease advances, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation (including easily getting lost), mood swings, loss of motivation, not managing self care, and behavioural issues. As a person's condition declines, they often withdraw from family and society. Gradually, bodily functions are lost, ultimately leading to death. Although the speed of progression can vary, the typical life expectancy following diagnosis is three to nine years. The cause of Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood. About 70% of the risk is believed to be genetic with many genes usually involved. Other risk factors include a history of head injuries, depression, or hypertension. The disease process is associated with plaques and tangles in the brain. A probable diagnosis is based on the history of the illness and cognitive testing with medical imaging and blood tests to rule out other possible causes. Initial symptoms are often mistaken for normal ageing. Examination of brain tissue is needed for a definite diagnosis. Mental and physical exercise, and avoiding obesity may decrease the risk of AD; however, evidence to support these recommendations is not strong. There are no medications or supplements that have been shown to decrease risk. No treatments stop or reverse its progression, though some may temporarily improve symptoms. Affected people increasingly rely on others for assistance, often placing a burden on the caregiver; the pressures can include social, psychological, physical, and economic elements. Exercise programmes may be beneficial with respect to activities of daily living and can potentially improve outcomes. Behavioural problems or psychosis due to dementia are often treated with antipsychotics, but this is not usually recommended, as there is little benefit with an increased risk of early death. In 2015, there were approximately 29.8 million people worldwide with AD. It most often begins in people over 65 years of age, although 4% to 5% of cases are early-onset Alzheimer's which begin before this. It affects about 6% of people 65 years and older. In 2015, dementia resulted in about 1.9 million deaths. It was first described by, and later named after, German psychiatrist and pathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906. In developed countries, AD is one of the most financially costly diseases.

  • Dementia with Lewy bodies

    serch.it?q=Dementia-with-Lewy-bodies

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a type of dementia accompanied by changes in behavior, cognition and movement. Memory loss is not always present early. Dementia steadily worsens over time and the condition is diagnosed when cognitive decline interferes with normal daily functioning. A core feature is REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), in which individuals lose normal muscle paralysis during REM sleep, and act out their dreams. RBD may appear years or decades before other symptoms. Other frequent symptoms include visual hallucinations; marked fluctuations in attention or alertness; and slowness of movement, trouble walking, or rigidity. The autonomic nervous system is usually affected, resulting in changes in blood pressure, heart and gastrointestinal function, with constipation as a common symptom. Mood changes such as depression and apathy are common. The exact cause is unknown, but involves widespread deposits of abnormal clumps of alpha-synuclein protein in neurons, known as Lewy bodies, as well as Lewy neurites. DLB is not usually inherited, but there is a genetic association in a small number of families. A probable diagnosis is made based on symptoms and biomarkers; the diagnostic workup may include blood tests, neuropsychological tests, medical imaging, and polysomnography. Other conditions that share some symptoms of DLB include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, delirium and, rarely, psychosis. There is no cure or medication that will modify the progression of the disease. Treatments aim to relieve some of its symptoms and reduce the burden on caregivers. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), such as donepezil and rivastigmine, are effective at improving cognition and overall functioning, and melatonin can be used for sleep-related symptoms. Antipsychotics are usually avoided, even for hallucinations, because people with DLB are sensitive to them, and their use can result in death. Medications for one symptom may worsen another. DLB is one of the three most common types of dementia, along with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Together with Parkinson's disease dementia, it is one of two dementias classified as the Lewy body dementias. It typically begins after the age of 50, and about 0.4% of people over 65 are affected. In the latter stages of the disease, people with DLB may be unable to care for themselves. Life expectancy following diagnosis is about eight years. The abnormal deposits of protein that are the underlying mechanism of the disease were discovered in 1912 by Frederic Lewy, and diffuse Lewy body disease was first described by Kenji Kosaka in 1976.

  • Alzheimer's disease

    serch.it?q=Alzheimer's-disease

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time. It is the cause of 60–70% of cases of dementia. The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss). As the disease advances, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation (including easily getting lost), mood swings, loss of motivation, not managing self care, and behavioural issues. As a person's condition declines, they often withdraw from family and society. Gradually, bodily functions are lost, ultimately leading to death. Although the speed of progression can vary, the typical life expectancy following diagnosis is three to nine years. The cause of Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood. About 70% of the risk is believed to be genetic with many genes usually involved. Other risk factors include a history of head injuries, depression, or hypertension. The disease process is associated with plaques and tangles in the brain. A probable diagnosis is based on the history of the illness and cognitive testing with medical imaging and blood tests to rule out other possible causes. Initial symptoms are often mistaken for normal ageing. Examination of brain tissue is needed for a definite diagnosis. Mental and physical exercise, and avoiding obesity may decrease the risk of AD; however, evidence to support these recommendations is not strong. There are no medications or supplements that have been shown to decrease risk. No treatments stop or reverse its progression, though some may temporarily improve symptoms. Affected people increasingly rely on others for assistance, often placing a burden on the caregiver; the pressures can include social, psychological, physical, and economic elements. Exercise programmes may be beneficial with respect to activities of daily living and can potentially improve outcomes. Behavioural problems or psychosis due to dementia are often treated with antipsychotics, but this is not usually recommended, as there is little benefit with an increased risk of early death. In 2015, there were approximately 29.8 million people worldwide with AD. It most often begins in people over 65 years of age, although 4% to 5% of cases are early-onset Alzheimer's which begin before this. It affects about 6% of people 65 years and older. In 2015, dementia resulted in about 1.9 million deaths. It was first described by, and later named after, German psychiatrist and pathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906. In developed countries, AD is one of the most financially costly diseases.

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