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  • Vinegar

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    A variety of flavored vinegars on sale in FranceVinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace chemicals that may include flavorings. Vinegar typically contains 5–20% by volume acetic acid. Usually the acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol or sugars by acetic acid bacteria. Vinegar is now mainly used as a cooking ingredient, or in pickling. There are many types of vinegar, depending upon the source materials. As the most easily manufactured mild acid, it has historically had a wide variety of industrial, medical, and domestic uses. Some of these are still commonly practiced, such as its use as a household cleaner.

  • Apfelwein

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    Apfelwein (Germany, apple wine), or Viez (Moselfranken, Saarland, Trier, vice) or Most (Austria, Switzerland, South Germany, must) are German words for cider. It is mainly made from eating apples or cooking apples, such as Granny Smith or Bramley, respectively. It has an alcohol content of 4.8%–7.0% and a tart, sour taste.Apfelwein is also regionally known as Ebbelwoi, Äppler, Stöffsche, Apfelmost (apple must), Viez (from Latin vice, the second or substitute wine), and saurer Most (sour must, Süßmost or sweet must is essentially apple juice). Instead of the name Äppler, restaurants and smaller manufacturers may instead call the beverage Schoppen or Schoppe, which actually refers to the measure of the glass. In the Frankfurt area, berries from the service tree (Sorbus domestica) may be added in small quantities to increase astringency, in which case the specific type of Apfelwein is called Speierling. In modern times, the term Speierling is often also used to refer to any more sour variety of Apfelwein, even if it lacks any juice of the service tree.

  • Apple cider vinegar

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    Apple cider vinegar, a vinegar made from fermented apple juice, is used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys. It is made by first crushing apples and squeezing out the liquid. Bacteria and yeast are then added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, and the sugars are turned into alcohol. In a second fermentation step, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (Acetobacter species). Acetic acid and malic acid are what give vinegar its sour taste. Apple cider vinegar has no nutritional value, aside from some calories, with all nutrients at negligible levels.

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