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  • Computer-aided diagnosis


    Computer-aided detection (CADe), also called computer-aided diagnosis (CADx), are systems that assist doctors in the interpretation of medical images. Imaging techniques in X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound diagnostics yield a great deal of information that the radiologist or other medical professional has to analyze and evaluate comprehensively in a short time. CAD systems process digital images for typical appearances and to highlight conspicuous sections, such as possible diseases, in order to offer input to support a decision taken by the professional. CAD also has potential future applications in digital pathology with the advent of whole-slide imaging and machine learning algorithms. So far its application has been limited to quantifying immunostaining but is also being investigated for the standard H&E stain. CAD is an interdisciplinary technology combining elements of artificial intelligence and computer vision with radiological and pathology image processing. A typical application is the detection of a tumor.

  • Breast cancer screening


    Breast cancer screening is the medical screening of asymptomatic, apparently healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis. The assumption is that early detection will improve outcomes. A number of screening tests have been employed, including clinical and self breast exams, mammography, genetic screening, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. A clinical or self breast exam involves feeling the breast for lumps or other abnormalities. Medical evidence, however, does not support its use in women with a typical risk for breast cancer. The use of mammography in universal screening for breast cancer is controversial as it may not reduce all-cause mortality and for causing harms through unnecessary treatments and medical procedures. Many national organizations recommend it for most older women. In the United States screening mammography women at normal risk for breast cancer, is only recommended every two years in women between the ages of 50 and 74. Several tools are available to help target breast cancer screening to older women with longer life expectancies.

  • Spiculated mass


    In oncology, a spiculated mass is a lump of tissue with spikes or points on the surface. It is suggestive but not diagnostic of malignancy, i.e. cancer. It's a common mammography finding in carcinoma breast.

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