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  • Alpaca

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    The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is a species of South American camelid. It is similar to, and often confused with, the llama. However, alpacas are often noticeably smaller than llamas. The two animals are closely related and can successfully cross-breed. Alpacas and llamas are also closely related to the vicuña, which is believed to be the alpaca's wild ancestor, and to the guanaco. There are two breeds of alpaca: the and the Huacaya alpaca. Alpacas are kept in herds that graze on the level heights of the Andes of Southern Peru, Western Bolivia, Ecuador, and Northern Chile at an altitude of to above sea level. Alpacas are considerably smaller than llamas, and unlike llamas, they were not bred to be working animals, but were bred specifically for their fiber. Alpaca fiber is used for making knitted and woven items, similarly to sheep's wool. These items include blankets, sweaters, hats, gloves, scarves, a wide variety of textiles and ponchos in South America, and sweaters, socks, coats and bedding in other parts of the world. The fiber comes in more than 52 natural colors as classified in Peru, 12 as classified in Australia, and 16 as classified in the United States. Alpacas communicate through body language. The most common is spitting when they are in distress, fearful, or mean to show dominance. Male alpacas are more aggressive than females, and tend to establish dominance of their herd group. In some cases, alpha males will immobilize the head and neck of a weaker or challenging male in order to show their strength and dominance. In the textile industry, "alpaca" primarily refers to the hair of Peruvian alpacas, but more broadly it refers to a style of fabric originally made from alpaca hair, such as mohair, Icelandic sheep wool, or even high-quality wool from other breeds of sheep. In trade, distinctions are made between alpacas and the several styles of mohair and luster. An adult alpaca generally is between in height at the shoulders (withers). They usually weigh between .

  • Synthetic cannabinoids

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    Bag and contents of a well known early brand named Spice that contains herbs spiked with synthetic cannabinoids, now illegal throughout much of the worldSynthetic cannabinoids are a class of molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors in the body (the same receptors to which THC and CBD attach, which are cannabinoids in cannabis plants). Synthetic cannabinoids are also designer drugs that are often sprayed onto plant matter. They are typically consumed through smoking, although more recently they have been consumed in a concentrated liquid form in the US and UK. They have been marketed as herbal incense, or “herbal smoking blends” and sold under common names like K2, Spice, and Synthetic Marijuana. They are also often labeled “not for human consumption.” When synthetic cannabinoid blends first went on sale in the early 2000s, it was thought that they achieved the psychoactive effects through a mixture of natural herbs. Laboratory analysis in 2008 showed that this was not the case, and that many in fact contained synthetic cannabinoids. Today, synthetic cannabinoids are the most common new psychoactive substances to be reported.

  • List of Egyptian hieroglyphs

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    The following is a list of Egyptian hieroglyphs. The total number of distinct hieroglyphs increased over time from several hundred in the Middle Kingdom to several thousand during the Ptolemaic Kingdom. The most widely used list of hieroglyphs is Gardiner's sign list (1928/9), which includes 763 signs in 26 categories. Georg Möller compiled more extensive lists, organised by historical epoch (published posthumously in 1927 and 1936). The Unicode Egyptian Hieroglyphs block (Unicode version 5.2, 2009) includes 1071 signs, with organisation based on Gardiner's list. As of 2016, there is a proposal by Michael Everson to extend the Unicode standard to comprise Möller's list. See the following pages for notable subset of hieroglyphs: Egyptian uniliteral signs Egyptian biliteral signs Egyptian numerals

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