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  • Phosphorus


    Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus, but because it is highly reactive, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. It has a concentration in the Earth's crust of about one gram per kilogram (compare copper at about 0.06 grams). With few exceptions, minerals containing phosphorus are in the maximally oxidized state as inorganic phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus was first isolated (as white phosphorus) in 1669 and emitted a faint glow when exposed to oxygen – hence the name, taken from Greek mythology, meaning "light-bearer" (Latin Lucifer), referring to the "Morning Star", the planet Venus. The term "phosphorescence", meaning glow after illumination, derives from this property of phosphorus, although the word has since been used for a different physical process that produces a glow. The glow of phosphorus is caused by oxidation of the white (but not red) phosphorus — a process now called chemiluminescence. Together with nitrogen, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth, phosphorus is classified as a pnictogen. Phosphorus is essential for life. Phosphates (compounds containing the phosphate ion, PO43−) are a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and phospholipids. Elemental phosphorus was first isolated from human urine, and bone ash was an important early phosphate source. Phosphate mines contain fossils because phosphate is present in the fossilized deposits of animal remains and excreta. Low phosphate levels are an important limit to growth in some aquatic systems. The vast majority of phosphorus compounds mined are consumed as fertilisers. Phosphate is needed to replace the phosphorus that plants remove from the soil, and its annual demand is rising nearly twice as fast as the growth of the human population. Other applications include organophosphorus compounds in detergents, pesticides, and nerve agents.

  • Veal


    Rungis International Market, France (2011). Veal is the meat from calves, often dairy breeds.Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle. Veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed; however, most veal comes from young males of dairy breeds who are not used for breeding. Generally, veal is more expensive than beef from older cattle. Some methods or aspects of veal production are controversial due to animal welfare concerns.

  • List of The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson episodes (1973)


    The following is a list of episodes of the television series The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson which aired in 1973:

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