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  • Muffler

    serch.it?q=Muffler

    Muffler (silver) and exhaust pipe on a Ducati motorcycle A muffler cut open to show the insulation, chambers and piping inside the shell A muffler (silencer in British English) is a device for reducing the noise emitted by the exhaust of an internal combustion engine.

  • Catalytic converter

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    Dodge Ram Simulation of flow inside a catalytic converter A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction). Catalytic converters are usually used with internal combustion engines fueled by either gasoline or diesel—including lean-burn engines as well as kerosene heaters and stoves. The first widespread introduction of catalytic converters was in the United States automobile market. To comply with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's stricter regulation of exhaust emissions, most gasoline-powered vehicles starting with the 1975 model year must be equipped with catalytic converters. These "two-way" converters combine oxygen with carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). In 1981, two-way catalytic converters were rendered obsolete by "three-way" converters that also reduce oxides of nitrogen (); however, two-way converters are still used for lean-burn engines.

  • Exhaust system

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    chrome plated) on a car engine Muffler and tailpipe on a car An exhaust system is usually piping used to guide reaction exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. The entire system conveys burnt gases from the engine and includes one or more exhaust pipes. Depending on the overall system design, the exhaust gas may flow through one or more of: Cylinder head and exhaust manifold A turbocharger to increase engine power. A catalytic converter to reduce air pollution. A muffler (North America) / silencer (UK/India), to reduce noise.

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