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  • Wheel cylinder

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    Wheel cylinder assembly Wheel cylinder child parts A wheel cylinder is a component of a hydraulic drum brake system. It is located in each wheel and is usually positioned at the top of the wheel, above the shoes. Its function is to exert force onto the shoes so as to bring them into contact with the drum and stop the vehicle with friction. The wheel cylinders are usually connected to the shoes with small bird-beak shaped rods. Wheel cylinders were first invented by Bendix in 1958, It is very similar to a slave cylinder and functions in much the same way, internally consisting of only a simple plunger. On older vehicles these may begin to leak and hinder the performance of the brakes, but are normally inexpensive and relatively easy to replace. The wheel cylinder consists of a cylinder that has two pistons, one on each side. Each piston has a rubber seal and a shaft that connects the piston with a brake shoe. When brake pressure is applied, the pistons are forced out pushing the shoes into contact with the drum. Some designs use two single piston wheel cylinders, one at the top of the drum and one at the bottom, each connected to one brake shoe. Wheel cylinders must be rebuilt or replaced if they show signs of leaking. Wheel cylinders used to be made of cast iron. However, they were more prone to rusting and aluminium is now the preferred material. It has a cylinder, two pistons, two rubber cups and a spring. The fluid presses against the pistons that move outward in the cylinder. When the piston come closer, the liquid is forced into the master cylinder, the spring between the two pistons holds the rubber cups in positions.

  • Balance wheel

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    A balance wheel, or balance, is the timekeeping device used in mechanical watches and some clocks, analogous to the pendulum in a pendulum clock. It is a weighted wheel that rotates back and forth, being returned toward its center position by a spiral torsion spring, the balance spring or hairspring. It is driven by the escapement, which transforms the rotating motion of the watch gear train into impulses delivered to the balance wheel. Each swing of the wheel (called a 'tick' or 'beat') allows the gear train to advance a set amount, moving the hands forward. The balance wheel and hairspring together form a harmonic oscillator, which due to resonance oscillates preferentially at a certain rate, its resonant frequency or 'beat', and resists oscillating at other rates. The combination of the mass of the balance wheel and the elasticity of the spring keep the time between each oscillation or ‘tick’ very constant, accounting for its nearly universal use as the timekeeper in mechanical watches to the present.

  • Breakdown (vehicle)

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    An overheated Vauxhall Carlton stopped on Tottenham Court Road, London Plaxton Pointer 2 bodied Dennis Dart SLF in Newport, Isle of Wight A broken down Ford Crown Victoria in New York city in 2009 A vehicle breakdown is the mechanical failure of a motor vehicle in such a way that the underlying problem prevents the vehicle from being operated at all, or impedes the vehicle's operation so much, that it is very difficult, nearly impossible, or else dangerous to operate. Vehicle breakdowns can occur for a large number of reasons. Depending on the nature of the problem, the vehicle may or may not need to be towed to an automobile repair shop. A "breakdown" is also referred to when a car stalls on the road. A vehicle stalls for a number of reasons ranging from a dead car battery, fuel pump, poor quality fuel, faulty electrical wiring, fuel pressure problems, overlooked leaks or missing caps.

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