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  • Drain cleaner


    A drain cleaner is a chemical-based consumer product that unblocks sewer pipes or helps to prevent the occurrence of clogged drains. The term may also refer to the individual who performs the activity with chemical drain cleaners or devices known as plumber's snake. Drain cleaners can be classified in two categories: either chemical or mechanical. If a single sink, toilet, or tub or shower drain is clogged, the first choice is normally a drain cleaner that can remove soft obstructions such as hair and grease clogs that can accumulate close to interior drain openings. Chemical drain cleaners, plungers, handheld drain augers, air burst drain cleaners, and home remedy drain cleaners are intended for this purpose. If more than one plumbing fixture is clogged the first choice is normally a drain cleaner that can remove soft or hard obstructions along the entire length of the drain, from the drain opening through the main sewer drain to the lateral piping outside the building. Electric drain cleaners, battery powered drain cleaners and sewer jetters are intended for this purpose.Each type of drain cleaner has advantages, disadvantages, and safety considerations as described below.

  • Intravenous sodium bicarbonate


    Intravenous sodium bicarbonate, also known as sodium hydrogen carbonate, is a medication primarily used to treat severe metabolic acidosis. For this purpose it is generally only used when the pH is less than 7.1 and when the underlying cause is either diarrhea, vomiting, or the kidneys. Other uses include high blood potassium, tricyclic antidepressant overdose, and cocaine toxicity as well as a number of other poisonings. It is given by injection into a vein. Side effects may include low blood potassium, high blood sodium, and swelling. It is not recommended in people with low blood calcium. Sodium bicarbonate is in the alkalinizing family of medication. It works by increasing blood bicarbonate, which buffers excess hydrogen ion and raises blood pH. Commercial production of sodium bicarbonate began between 1791 and 1823. Intravenous medical use began around the 1950s. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Sodium bicarbonate is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.09–2.58 per 10 ml of 8.4% solution. In the United Kingdom this amount costs the NHS about 11.10 pounds.

  • Sodium bicarbonate


    Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3−). Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.

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