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  • Diabetic diet

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    A diabetic diet is a diet that is used by people with diabetes mellitus or high blood glucose to minimize symptoms and dangerous consequences of the disease. Since carbohydrate is the macronutrient that raises blood glucose levels most significantly, the greatest debate is how low in carbohydrates the diet should be. This is because although lowering carbohydrate intake will help reduce blood glucose levels, a low-carbohydrate diet conflicts with the traditional establishment view that carbohydrates should be the main source of calories. Recommendations of the fraction of total calories to be obtained from carbohydrate are generally in the range of 20% to 45%, but recommendations can vary as widely as from 16% to 75%. For overweight and obese people with Type 2 diabetes, any weight-loss diet that the person will adhere to and achieve weight loss on is at least partly effective. The most agreed-upon recommendation is for the diet to be low in sugar and refined carbohydrates, while relatively high in dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber. People with diabetes are also encouraged to eat small frequent meals a day.

  • Low-carbohydrate diet

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    A low-carbohydrate diet restricts the amount of carbohydrate-rich foods – such as bread – in the diet.Low-carbohydrate diets or carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRDs) are diets that restrict carbohydrate consumption. Foods high in carbohydrates (e.g., sugar, bread, pasta) are limited or replaced with foods containing a higher percentage of fats and moderate protein (e.g., meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, cheese, nuts, and seeds) and other foods low in carbohydrates (e.g., most salad vegetables such as spinach, kale, chard and collards), although other vegetables and fruits (especially berries) are often allowed. There is a lack of standardization of how much carbohydrate low-carbohydate diets must have, and this has complicated research. One definition, from the American Academy of Family Physicians, specifies low-carbohydrate diets as having less than 20% carbohydrate content. Disadvantages of the diet might include halitosis, headache and constipation, and in general the potential adverse effects of the diet are under-researched, particularly for more serious possible risks such as for bone health and cancer incidence. Carbohydrate-restricted diets can be as effective, or marginally more effective, than low-fat diets in helping achieve weight loss in the short term. In the long term, effective weight maintenance depends on calorie restriction, not the ratio of macronutrients in a diet. The hypothesis proposed by diet advocates that carbohydrate causes undue fat accumulation via the medium of insulin, and that low-carbohydrate diets have a "metabolic advantage", has been falsified by experiment. For people with potential cardiovascular health issues, a low-carbohydrate diet appears to be as effective as low-fat dieting in mitigating risk. Carbohydrate-restricted diets are no more effective than a conventional healthy diet in preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes, but for people with type 2 diabetes they are a viable option for losing weight or helping with glycemic control. Carbohydrate-restricted dieting does not appear to be helpful in managing type 1 diabetes. An extreme form of low-carbohydrate diet – the ketogenic diet – is established as a medical diet fot treating epilepsy. Through celebrity endorsement it has become a popular weight-loss fad diet, but there is no evidence of any distinctive benefit for this purpose, and it risks causing a number of side effects. The British Dietetic Association named it one of the "top 5 worst celeb diets to avoid in 2018".

  • Glycemic load

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    The glycemic load (GL) of food is a number that estimates how much the food will raise a person's blood glucose level after eating it. One unit of glycemic load approximates the effect of consuming one gram of glucose. Glycemic load accounts for how much carbohydrate is in the food and how much each gram of carbohydrate in the food raises blood glucose levels. Glycemic load is based on the glycemic index (GI), and is calculated by multiplying the grams of available carbohydrate in the food by the food's glycemic index, and then dividing by 100.

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