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  • Motion sickness

    serch.it?q=Motion-sickness

    Motion sickness occurs in connection with travel or movement when an incongruity comes about between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of bodily movement. Most kinds are considered terrestrial motion sickness, such as being carsick, airsick, seasick, or sick from reality simulation. Symptoms include dizziness, fatigue, vertigo, depressed appetite, nonspecific malaise, gastrointestinal discomfort, (most commonly) nausea, and nausea-caused vomiting (see Sopite syndrome). If the cause of the nausea is not resolved, the sufferer will usually vomit, but vomiting may not relieve the feeling of weakness and nausea, which means the person might continue to vomit until the underlying cause of the nausea is resolved. A kind of motion sickness with similar symptoms but a possibly different etiology is known as space adaptation syndrome or space motion sickness. "Nausea" in Greek means seasickness (naus means ship).

  • Hyperemesis gravidarum

    serch.it?q=Hyperemesis-gravidarum

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and possibly dehydration. Signs and symptoms may also include vomiting many times a day and feeling faint. Hyperemesis gravidarum is considered more severe than morning sickness. Often symptoms get better after the 20th week of pregnancy but may last the entire pregnancy duration. The exact causes of hyperemesis gravidarum are unknown. Risk factors include the first pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, obesity, prior or family history of HG, trophoblastic disorder, and a history of eating disorders. Diagnosis is usually made based on the observed signs and symptoms. HG has been technically defined as more than three episodes of vomiting per day such that weight loss of 5% or three kilograms has occurred and ketones are present in the urine. Other potential causes of the symptoms should be excluded including urinary tract infection and high thyroid levels. Treatment includes drinking fluids and a bland diet. Recommendations may include electrolyte-replacement drinks, thiamine, and a higher protein diet. Some women require intravenous fluids. With respect to medications pyridoxine or metoclopramide are preferred. Prochlorperazine, dimenhydrinate, or ondansetron may be used if these are not effective. Hospitalization may be required. Psychotherapy may improve outcomes. Evidence for acupressure is poor. While vomiting in pregnancy has been described as early as 2,000 BC, the first clear medical description of hyperemesis gravidarum was in 1852 by Antoine Dubois. Hyperemesis gravidarum is estimated to affect 0.3–2.0% of pregnant women. While previously known as a common cause of death in pregnancy, with proper treatment this is now very rare. Those affected have a lower risk of miscarriage but a higher risk of premature birth. Some pregnant women choose to have an abortion due to HG's symptoms.

  • Nausea

    serch.it?q=Nausea

    Nausea is an unpleasant, diffuse sensation of unease and discomfort, often perceived as an urge to vomit. While not painful, it can be a debilitating symptom if prolonged, and has been described as placing discomfort on the chest, upper abdomen, or back of the throat. Like pain, the purpose of nausea is to discourage the person or animal from repeating whatever caused the unpleasantness. The memory of pain elicits safer or evasive actions; the memory of nausea elicits revulsion towards whatever was eaten before vomiting it up — even if it was not the cause of the nausea. Nausea is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes. Some common causes of nausea are motion sickness, dizziness, migraine, fainting, low blood sugar, gastroenteritis (stomach infection) or food poisoning. Nausea is a side effect of many medications including chemotherapy, or morning sickness in early pregnancy. Nausea may also be caused by anxiety, disgust and depression. Medications taken to prevent and treat nausea are called antiemetics. The most commonly prescribed antiemetics in the US are promethazine, metoclopramide and the newer, extremely effective ondansetron. The word nausea is from Latin nausea, from Greek – nausia, "ναυτία" – nautia, motion sickness, "feeling sick or queasy".

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