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  • Silicate mineral paint


    Silicate mineral paints or mineral colors are paint coats with mineral binding agents. Two relevant mineral binders play a role in the field of colors: Lime and silicate. Under influence of carbon dioxide, lime-based binders carbonate and water silicate-based binders solidify. Together they form calcium silicate hydrates. Lime paints (aside of Fresco-technique) are only moderately weather resistant, so people apply them primarily in monument preservation. Mineral colors are commonly understood to be silicate paints. These paints use potassium water glass as binder. They are also called water glass paints or Keimfarben (after the inventor). Mineral silicate paint coats are considered durable and weather resistant. Lifetimes exceeding a hundred years are possible. The city hall in Schwyz and "Gasthaus Weißer Adler" in Stein am Rhein (both in Switzerland) received their coats of mineral paint in 1891, and facades in Oslo from 1895 or in Traunstein, Germany from 1891.

  • Lead-based paint in the United Kingdom


    Most lead-based paint in the United Kingdom was banned from sale to the general public in 1992, apart from for specialist uses. Prior to this lead compounds had been used as the pigment and drying agent in different types of paint, for example brick and some tile paints

  • Stucco


    House of Borujerdi-ha, 1850s, Kashan, Iran Stucco from the Sardar Rafie Yanehsari building (Shahryari building 1), Hezarjarib District, Behshahr County, IranStucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as a decorative coating for walls and ceilings, and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials, such as metal, concrete, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. In English, stucco usually refers to a coating for the outside of a building and plaster one for interiors; as described below, the material itself is often little different. However, other European languages, notably including Italian, do not have the same distinction; stucco means plaster in Italian and serves for both. This has led to English often using "stucco" for interior decorative plasterwork in relief, especially in art history and older sources.

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