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  • List of essential oils


    Essential oil of Eucalyptus A glass vial containing sandalwood oil Davana essential oil Essential oils are volatile and liquid aroma compounds from natural sources, usually plants. They are not oils in a strict sense, but often share with oils a poor solubility in water. Essential oils often have an odor and are therefore used in food flavoring and perfumery. They are usually prepared by fragrance extraction techniques (such as distillation, cold pressing, or Solvent extraction). Essential oils are distinguished from aroma oils (essential oils and aroma compounds in an oily solvent), infusions in a vegetable oil, absolutes, and concretes. Typically, essential oils are highly complex mixtures of often hundreds of individual aroma compounds. Agar oil or oodh, distilled from agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis). Highly prized for its fragrance. Ajwain oil, distilled from the leaves of (Carum copticum). Oil contains 35–65% thymol. Angelica root oil, distilled from the Angelica archangelica. Anise oil, from the Pimpinella anisum, rich odor of licorice Asafoetida oil, used to flavor food. Balsam of Peru, from the Myroxylon, used in food and drink for flavoring, in perfumes and toiletries for fragrance Basil oil, used in making perfumes, as well as in aromatherapy Bay oil is used in perfumery and aromatherapy Bergamot oil, used in aromatherapy and in perfumes. Black pepper oil is distilled from the berries of Piper nigrum. Buchu oil, made from the buchu shrub. Considered toxic and no longer widely used. Formerly used medicinally. Birch oil used in aromatherapy Camphor oil Cannabis flower essential oil, used as a flavoring in foods, primarily candy and beverages. Also used as a scent in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, and candles. Calamodin oil or calamansi essential oil comes from a citrus tree in the Philippines extracted via cold press or steam distillation. Caraway seed oil, used a flavoring in foods. Also used in mouthwashes, toothpastes, etc. as a flavoring agent. Cardamom seed oil, used in aromatherapy. Extracted from seeds of subspecies of Zingiberaceae (ginger). Also used as a fragrance in soaps, perfumes, etc. Carrot seed oil, used in aromatherapy. Cedar oil (or cedarwood oil), primarily used in perfumes and fragrances. Chamomile oil, there are many varieties of chamomile but only two are used in aromatherapy, Roman and German. German chamomile contains a higher level of the chemical azulene Calamus oil Used in perfumery and formerly as a food additive Cinnamon oil, used for flavoring Cistus species. Citron oil, used in Ayurveda and perfumery. Citronella oil, from a plant related to lemon grass is used as an insect repellent Clary Sage oil, used in perfumery and as an additive flavoring in some alcoholic beverages. Coconut oil, used for skin, food, and hair Clove oil Coffee oil, used to flavor food. Coriander oil Costmary oil (bible leaf oil), formerly used medicinally in Europe; still used as such in southwest Asia. Discovered to contain up to 12.5% of the toxin β-thujone. Costus root oil Cranberry seed oil, equally high in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, primarily used in the cosmetic industry. Cubeb oil, used to flavor foods. Cumin seed oil/black seed oil, used as a flavor, particularly in meat products Cypress oil, used in cosmetics Cypriol oil Curry leaf oil, used to flavor food. Davana oil, from the Artemisia pallens, used as a perfume ingredient Dill oil, chemically almost identical to Caraway seed oil. High carvone content. Elecampane oil Elemi oil, used as a perfume and fragrance ingredient. Comes from the oleoresins of Canarium luzonicum and Canarium ovatum which are common in the Philippines. Eucalyptus oil, historically used as a germicide. Fennel seed oil Fenugreek oil, used for cosmetics from ancient times. Fir oil Frankincense oil, used in aromatherapy and in perfumes. Galangal oil , used to flavor food. Galbanum oil, used in perfumery. Garlic oil is distilled from Allium sativum. Geranium oil, also referred to as geranol. Used in herbal medicine, aromatherapy, and perfumery. Ginger oil, used medicinally in many cultures, and has been studied extensively as a nausea treatment, where it was found more effective than placebo. Goldenrod oil used in herbal medicine, including treatment of urological problems. Grapefruit oil, extracted from the peel of the fruit. Used in aromatherapy. Contains 90% limonene. Henna oil, used in body art. Known to be dangerous to people with certain enzyme deficiencies. Pre-mixed pastes are considered dangerous, primarily due to adulterants. Helichrysum oil Hickory nut oil Horseradish oil Hyssop Idaho-grown Tansy Jasmine oil, used for its flowery fragrance. Juniper berry oil, used as a flavor. Laurus nobilis Lavender oil, used primarily as a fragrance. Ledum Lemon oil, similar in fragrance to the fruit. Unlike other essential oils, lemon oil is usually cold pressed. Used in cosmetics. Lemongrass. Lemongrass is a highly fragrant grass from India. The oil is very useful for insect repellent. Lime Litsea cubeba oil, lemon-like scent, often used in perfumes and aromatherapy. Linalool Mandarin Marjoram Melissa oil (Lemon balm), sweet smelling oil Mentha arvensis oil, mint oil, used in flavoring toothpastes, mouthwashes and pharmaceuticals, as well as in aromatherapy. Moringa oil, can be used directly on the skin and hair. It can also be used in soap and as a base for other cosmetics. Mountain Savory Mugwort oil, used in ancient times for medicinal and magical purposes. Currently considered to be a neurotoxin. Mustard oil, containing a high percentage of allyl isothiocyanate or other isothiocyanates, depending on the species of mustard Myrrh oil, warm, slightly musty smell. Myrtle Neem oil or neemt ree oil Neroli is produced from the blossom of the bitter orange tree. Nutmeg oil Orange oil, like lemon oil, cold pressed rather than distilled. Consists of 90% d-Limonene. Used as a fragrance, in cleaning products and in flavoring foods. Oregano oil, contains thymol and carvacrol Orris oil is extracted from the roots of the Florentine iris (Iris florentina), Iris germanica and Iris pallida. It is used as a flavouring agent, in perfume, and medicinally. Palo Santo Parsley oil, used in soaps, detergents, colognes, cosmetics and perfumes, especially men's fragrances. Patchouli oil, very common ingredient in perfumes. Perilla essential oil, extracted from the leaves of the perilla plant. Contains about 50–60% perillaldehyde. Pennyroyal oil, highly toxic. It is abortifacient and can even in small quantities cause acute liver and lung damage. Peppermint oil Petitgrain Pine oil, used as a disinfectant, and in aromatherapy. Ravensara Red Cedar Roman Chamomile Rose oil, distilled from rose petals, used primarily as a fragrance. Rosehip oil, distilled from the seeds of the Rosa rubiginosa or Rosa mosqueta. Rosemary oil, distilled from the flowers of Rosmarinus officinalis. Rosewood oil, used primarily for skin care applications. Sage oil,The spice star anise is distilled to make star anise oil Sandalwood oil, used primarily as a fragrance, for its pleasant, woody fragrance. Sassafras oil, from sassafras root bark. Used in aromatherapy, soap-making, perfumes, and the like. Formerly used as a spice, and as the primary flavoring of root beer, inter alia. Sassafras oil is heavily regulated in the United States due to its high safrole content. Savory oil, from Satureja species. Used in aromatherapy, cosmetic and soap-making applications. Schisandra oil Spearmint oil, often used in flavoring mouthwash and chewing gum, among other applications. Spikenard Spruce oil Star anise oil, highly fragrant oil using in cooking. Also used in perfumery and soaps, has been used in toothpastes, mouthwashes, and skin creams. 90% of the world's star anise crop is used in the manufacture of Tamiflu, a drug used to treat influenza, and is hoped to be useful for avian flu Tangerine Tarragon oil, distilled from Artemisia dracunculus Tea tree oil, extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia. Thyme oil Tsuga belongs to the pine tree family. Turmeric, used to flavor food. Valerian Warionia, used as a perfume ingredient Vetiver oil (khus oil) a thick, amber oil, primarily from India. Used as a fixative in perfumery, and in aromatherapy. Western red cedar Wintergreen Yarrow oil Ylang-ylang Zedoary, used to flavor food.

  • History of cosmetics


    Nefertiti bust with eye liner applied ~1,320 BC (~3,300 years ago) The history of cosmetics spans at least 7,000 years and is present in almost every society on earth. Cosmetic body art is argued to have been the earliest form of a ritual in human culture. The evidence for this comes in the form of utilised red mineral pigments (red ochre) including crayons associated with the emergence of Homo sapiens in Africa. Archaeological evidence of cosmetics certainly dates from ancient Egypt and Greece. According to one source, early major developments include the use of castor oil in ancient Egypt as a protective balm and skin creams made of beeswax, olive oil and rosewater described by the Romans. The Ancient Greeks also used cosmetics. Cosmetics are mentioned in the Old Testament—2 Kings 9:30 where Jezebel painted her eyelids—approximately 840 BC—and the book of Esther describes various beauty treatments as well. Cosmetics were also used in ancient Rome, although much of Roman literature suggests that it was frowned upon. It is known that some women in ancient Rome invented make up including lead-based formulas, to whiten the skin, and kohl was used to line the eyes.

  • Ginataang manok


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