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  • Urinary incontinence

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    Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine. It is a common and distressing problem, which may have a large impact on quality of life. It has been identified as an important issue in geriatric health care. The term enuresis is often used to refer to urinary incontinence primarily in children, such as nocturnal enuresis (bed wetting). Pelvic surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause are major risk factors. Urinary incontinence is often a result of an underlying medical condition but is under-reported to medical practitioners. There are four main types of incontinence: Urge incontinence due to an overactive bladder Stress incontinence due to poor closure of the bladder Overflow incontinence due to either poor bladder contraction or blockage of the urethra Functional incontinence due to medications or health problems making it difficult to reach the bathroomTreatments include surgery, pelvic floor muscle training, bladder training, and electrical stimulation. The benefit of medications is small and long term safety is unclear. It is more common in older women.

  • Artificial urinary bladder

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    The two main methods for replacing bladder function involve either redirecting urine flow or replacing the bladder in situ. Replacement can be done with an artificial urinary bladder, an artificial organ.

  • Cystectomy

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    Cystectomy is a medical term for surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder. It may also be rarely used to refer to the removal of a cyst. The most common condition warranting removal of the urinary bladder is bladder cancer. Two main types of cystectomies can be performed. A partial cystectomy (also known as a segmental cystectomy) involves removal of only a portion of the bladder. A radical cystectomy involves removal of the entire bladder along with surrounding lymph nodes and other nearby organs that contain cancer. Evaluation of the tissue removed during cystectomy and lymph node dissection aids in determining pathological cancer staging. This type of cancer staging can be used to determine further work-up, treatment, and follow-up needed along with potential prognosis. After the bladder has been removed, a urinary diversion is necessary to allow elimination of urine.

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