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  • Epidural hematoma

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    Epidural hematoma is when bleeding occurs between the tough outer membrane covering the brain (dura mater), and the skull. Often there is loss of consciousness following a head injury, a brief regaining of consciousness, and then loss of consciousness again. Other symptoms may include headache, confusion, vomiting, and an inability to move parts of the body. Complications may include seizures. The cause is typically head injury that results in a break of the temporal bone and bleeding from the middle meningeal artery. Occasionally it can occur as a result of a bleeding disorder or blood vessel malformation. Diagnosis is typically by a CT scan or MRI. When this condition occurs in the spine it is known as a spinal epidural hematoma. Treatment is generally by urgent surgery in the form of a craniotomy or burr hole. Without treatment death typically results. The condition occurs in one to four percent of head injuries. Typically it occurs in young adults. Males are more often affected than females.

  • Pseudoaneurysm

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    A pseudoaneurysm, also known as a false aneurysm, is a collection of blood that forms between the two outer layers of an artery, the tunica media and the tunica adventitia. It is usually caused by a penetrating injury to the vessel, which then bleeds, but forms a space between the above two layers, rather than exiting the vessel. It may be pulsatile and can resemble a true aneurysm. A true aneurysm involves all three layers of the blood vessel. A dissecting aneurysm is when blood from the vessel lumen tracks between the two inner layers, the intima and the tunica media. This can cause blockage of the flow. A perivascular hematoma is a collection of blood that is external to the three vessel layers. Due to being close to the vessel, it can also be pulsatile, and can be mistaken for a pseudoaneurysm or aneurysm. Femoral pseudoaneurysms may complicate up to 8% of vascular interventional procedures. Small pseudoaneurysms can spontaneously clot, while others need definitive treatment. A pseudoaneurysm may also occur in a chamber of the heart following myocardial damage due to ischemia or trauma. A pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle is a potentially lethal complication from a myocardial infarction.

  • Pulled hamstring

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    Straining of the hamstring, also known as a pulled hamstring, is defined as an excessive stretch or tear of muscle fibers and related tissues. Hamstring injuries are common in athletes participating in many sports and are very difficult to treat and rehabilitate. Track and field athletes are particularly at risk, as hamstring injuries have been estimated to make up 29% of all injuries in sprinters. The biceps femoris long head is at the most risk for injury, possibly due to its reduced moment of knee and hip flexion as compared to the medial hamstrings.

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