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  • Limb infarction


    A limb infarction is an area of tissue death of an arm or leg. It may cause skeletal muscle infarction, avascular necrosis of bones, or necrosis of a part of or an entire limb.

  • Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis


    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is the presence of a blood clot in the dural venous sinuses, which drain blood from the brain. Symptoms may include headache, abnormal vision, any of the symptoms of stroke such as weakness of the face and limbs on one side of the body, and seizures. The diagnosis is usually by computed tomography (CT scan) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate obstruction of the venous sinuses. Testing may be done to try to determine the underlying cause. Treatment is typically with anticoagulants (medication that suppresses blood clotting) such as low molecular weight heparin. Rarely thrombolysis (enzymatic destruction of the blood clot) are used. The disease may be complicated by raised intracranial pressure, which may warrant surgical intervention such as the placement of a shunt.

  • Lemierre's syndrome


    Lemierre's syndrome refers to infectious thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. It most often develops as a complication of a bacterial sore throat infection in young, otherwise healthy adults. The thrombophlebitis is a serious condition and may lead to further systemic complications such as bacteria in the blood or septic emboli. Lemierre's syndrome occurs most often when a bacterial (e.g., Fusobacterium necrophorum) throat infection progresses to the formation of a peritonsillar abscess. Deep in the abscess, anaerobic bacteria can flourish. When the abscess wall ruptures internally, the drainage carrying bacteria seeps through the soft tissue and infects the nearby structures. Spread of infection to the nearby internal jugular vein provides a gateway for the spread of bacteria through the bloodstream. The inflammation surrounding the vein and compression of the vein may lead to blood clot formation. Pieces of the potentially infected clot can break off and travel through the right heart into the lungs as emboli, blocking branches of the pulmonary artery that carry blood with little oxygen from the right side of the heart to the lungs. Sepsis following a throat infection was described by Schottmuller in 1918. However, it was André Lemierre, in 1936, who published a series of 20 cases where throat infections were followed by identified anaerobic sepsis, of whom 18 died.

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