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High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is a major risk factor for heart disease, kidney disease, stroke, and heart failure. What Blood Pressure Is Considered Too High?
A hypertensive (high blood pressure) crisis is when blood pressure rises quickly and severely with readings of 180/120 or greater. The consequences of uncontrolled blood pressure in this range can be severe and include: Stroke; Loss of consciousness; Memory loss; Heart attack; Damage to the eyes and kidneys; Loss of kidney function; Aortic dissection
Researchers found that people with pre-high blood pressure (blood pressure between 120/80 and 139/89) were 66 percent more likely to develop a stroke than people who had normal blood pressure. The study found that treating people with even a slightly elevated blood pressure could prevent many strokes.
100 Million Americans Have High Blood Pressure Under New Guidelines. And smoking is a major blood pressure risk. Blood pressure of 120/80 or above is considered elevated; 130/80 to 139/89 is now considered Stage 1 hypertension and anything 140/90 or above will be considered stage 2 hypertension.
Extremely high blood pressure — a top number (systolic pressure) of 180 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or higher or a bottom number (diastolic pressure) of 120 mm Hg or higher — can damage blood vessels. The blood vessels become inflamed and may leak fluid or blood. As a result, the heart may not be able to pump blood effectively.
Symptoms of High Blood Pressure One of the most dangerous aspects of hypertension is that you may not know that you have it. In fact, nearly one-third of people who have high blood pressure don't ...
High blood pressure or hypertension is a long-term condition in which the blood pressure within the arteries is persistently elevated. Blood pressure is expressed by two measurements, the systolic and diastolic measurements represented by the top number and bottom number received when measuring blood pressure, respectively.
The primary way that high blood pressure causes harm is by increasing the workload of the heart and blood vessels — making them work harder and less efficiently. Over time, the force and friction of high blood pressure damages the delicate tissues inside the arteries.
Shock is the state of not enough blood flow to the tissues of the body as a result of problems with the circulatory system. Initial symptoms may include weakness, fast heart rate, fast breathing, sweating, anxiety, and increased thirst. This may be followed by confusion, unconsciousness, or cardiac arrest as complications worsen. Shock is divided into four main types based on the underlying cause: low volume, cardiogenic, obstructive, and distributive shock. Low volume shock may be from bleeding, vomiting, or pancreatitis. Cardiogenic shock may be due to a heart attack or cardiac contusion. Obstructive shock may be due to cardiac tamponade or a tension pneumothorax. Distributed shock may be due to sepsis, spinal cord injury, or certain overdoses. The diagnosis is generally based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination, and laboratory tests. A decreased pulse pressure (systolic blood pressure minus diastolic blood pressure) or a fast heart rate raises concerns. The heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure, known as the shock index (SI), of greater than 0.8 supports the diagnosis more than low blood pressure or a fast heart rate in isolation. Treatment of shock is based on the likely underlying cause. An open airway and sufficient breathing should be established. Any ongoing bleeding should be stopped, which may require surgery or embolization. Intravenous fluid, such as Ringer's lactate or packed red blood cells, is often given. Efforts to maintain a normal body temperature are also important. Vasopressors may be useful in certain cases. Shock is both common and has a high risk of death. In the United States about 1.2 million people present to the emergency room each year with shock and their risk of death is between 20 and 50%.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH or PHTN) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs. Symptoms include shortness of breath, syncope, tiredness, chest pain, swelling of the legs, and a fast heartbeat. The condition may make it difficult to exercise. Onset is typically gradual. The cause is often unknown. Risk factors include a family history, prior blood clots in the lungs, HIV/AIDS, sickle cell disease, cocaine use, COPD, sleep apnea, living at high altitudes, and problems with the mitral valve. The underlying mechanism typically involves inflammation of the arteries in the lungs. Diagnosis involves first ruling out other potential causes. There is no cure. Treatment depends on the type of disease. A number of supportive measures such as oxygen therapy, diuretics, and medications to inhibit clotting may be used. Medications specifically for the condition include epoprostenol, treprostinil, iloprost, bosentan, ambrisentan, macitentan, and sildenafil. A lung transplant may be an option in certain cases. While the exact frequency of the condition is unknown, it is estimated that about 1,000 new cases occur a year in the United States. Females are more often affected than males. Onset is typically between 20 and 60 years of age. It was first identified by Ernst von Romberg in 1891.