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  • Diseases of the foot

    serch.it?q=Diseases-of-the-foot

    Flatfoot in a 55 years old female with ankle and knee arthritis, 2008 Vascular ischemia of the toes with the characteristic cyanosis, 2010 Chilblains, also called perniosis, 2008 Bunion and hammer toe, 2013 Foot disease in a Ziguinchor hospital, Senegal, 1973 Athlete's foot, a fungal infection, 2009Diseases of the foot generally are not limited, that is they are related to or manifest elsewhere in the body. However, the foot is often the first place some of these diseases or a sign or symptom of others appear. This is because of the foot's distance from the central circulation, the heart and its constant exposure to pressures from the ground and the weight of the body. The foot may look simple but is a complex structure with 26 bones, 33 joints, numerous muscles, nerves and different ligament types. Any part of the foot can be affected. Some foot disorders may present with just a mild ache, but other foot disorders can be very serious and limit ability to walk or bear weight. Most minor cases of foot pain respond to home care treatments except when severe pain is present as it is a disabling condition and usually needs some type of medical attention.

  • Plantar fasciitis

    serch.it?q=Plantar-fasciitis

    Plantar fasciitis is a disorder of the connective tissue which supports the arch of the foot. It results in pain in the heel and bottom of the foot that is usually most severe with the first steps of the day or following a period of rest. Pain is also frequently brought on by bending the foot and toes up towards the shin. The pain typically comes on gradually, and it affects both feet in about one third of cases. The causes of plantar fasciitis are not entirely clear. Risk factors include overuse such as from long periods of standing, an increase in exercise, and obesity. It is also associated with inward rolling of the foot, a tight Achilles tendon, and a lifestyle that involves little exercise. While heel spurs are frequently found it is unclear if they have a role in causing the condition. Plantar fasciitis is a disorder of the insertion site of the ligament on the bone characterized by micro tears, breakdown of collagen, and scarring. Since inflammation plays either a lesser or no role, a review proposed it be renamed plantar fasciosis. The diagnosis is typically based on signs and symptoms; ultrasound is sometimes useful. Other conditions with similar symptoms include osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, heel pad syndrome, and reactive arthritis. Most cases of plantar fasciitis resolve with time and conservative methods of treatment. For the first few weeks, those affected are usually advised to rest, change their activities, take pain medications, and stretch. If this is not sufficient, physiotherapy, orthotics, splinting, or steroid injections may be options. If these measures are not effective, extracorporeal shockwave therapy or surgery may be tried. Between 4% and 7% of the general population has heel pain at any given time: about 80% of these are due to plantar fasciitis. Approximately 10% of people have the disorder at some point during their life. It becomes more common with age. It is unclear if one sex is more affected than the other.

  • Bunion

    serch.it?q=Bunion

    A bunion is a deformity of the joint connecting the big toe to the foot. The big toe often bends towards the other toes and the joint becomes red and painful. The onset of bunions is typically gradual. Complications may include bursitis or arthritis. The exact cause is unclear. Proposed factors include wearing overly tight shoes, family history, and rheumatoid arthritis. Diagnosis is generally based on symptoms and supported by X-rays. A similar condition of the little toe is referred to as a bunionette. Treatment may include proper shoes, orthotics, or NSAIDs. If this is not effective for improving symptoms, surgery may be performed. It affects about 23% of adults. Females are affected more often than males. Usual age of onset is between 20 and 50 years old. The condition also becomes more common with age. It was first clearly described in 1870.

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