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  • Brake wear indicator


    A Brake wear indicator is used to warn the user and/or owner of a vehicle that the brake pad is in need of replacement. The main area of use for this is on motor vehicles with more than three wheels. However brake wear indicators are also useful for brake pads in industrial applications, including wind turbines and cranes. This article refers to disc brakes as an example, but the principle is the same for other types of friction brakes.

  • Cost breakdown analysis


    Components of price. Image according to Garrett (2008), figure 4-1, p.65 In business economics cost breakdown analysis is a method of cost analysis, which itemizes the cost of a certain product or service into its various components, the so-called cost drivers. The cost breakdown analysis is a popular cost reduction strategy and a viable opportunity for businesses.The price of a product or service is defined as cost plus profit, whereas cost can be broken down further into direct cost and indirect cost. As a business has virtually no influence on indirect cost, a cost reduction oriented cost breakdown analysis focuses rather on factors contributing to direct cost. The most common factors among direct cost are labor, raw materials and subcontracting. These are aspects of a business, over which it has direct control and which, in turn, enables the business to identify ways to save expenditure by the proper application of a cost breakdown analysis. Businesses can also combine this strategy with a value chain analysis, which allows price forecasts and hence, quicker responses to changes in the market.

  • Work breakdown structure


    Example from MIL-HDBK-881, which illustrates the first three levels of a typical aircraft system. Working on a project WBS A work-breakdown structure (WBS) in project management and systems engineering, is a deliverable-oriented breakdown of a project into smaller components. A work breakdown structure is a key project deliverable that organizes the team's work into manageable sections. The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK 5) defines the work-breakdown structure "A hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables." A work-breakdown structure element may be a product, data, service, or any combination thereof. A WBS also provides the necessary framework for detailed cost estimating and control along with providing guidance for schedule development and control.

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