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  • Scotch-Irish Americans


    Scotch-Irish (or Scots-Irish) Americans are American descendants of Ulster Scots and Anglo-Irish Protestant Dissenters from various parts of Ireland, but usually from the province of Ulster, who migrated during the 18th and 19th centuries. In the 2017 American Community Survey, 5.39 million (1.7% of the population) reported Scottish ancestry, an additional 3 million (0.9% of the population) identified more specifically with Scotch-Irish ancestry, and many people who claim "American ancestry" may actually be of Scotch-Irish ancestry. The term Scotch-Irish is used primarily in the United States, with people in Great Britain or Ireland who are of a similar ancestry identifying as Ulster Scots people. Most of these emigres from Ireland had been recent settlers, or the descendants of settlers, from the Kingdom of England or the Kingdom of Scotland who had gone to the Kingdom of Ireland to seek economic opportunities and freedom from the control of the episcopal Church of England and the Scottish Episcopal Church. These included 200,000 Scottish Presbyterians who settled in Ireland between 1608 and 1697.

  • List of slave owners


    The following is a list of slave owners, for which there is a consensus of historical evidence of slave ownership, in alphabetical order by last name. 1. A ---- William Aiken (1779–1831), founder and president of the South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company William Aiken Jr. (1806–1887), the 61st Governor of South Carolina, who also served in the state legislature and the U.S. Congress Gnaeus Julius Agricola (AD 40–93), Roman general Aleijadinho (1730/1738–1814) Atahualpa, the last Inca Emperor (1502–1533) David Rice Atchison (1807–1883), American politician known for potentially being Acting President of the United States on March 4, 1849 2. B ---- Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (1971–), self-proclaimed Caliph of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) Vasco Núñez de Balboa (c. 1475–1519), Spanish explorer and conquistador Hayreddin Barbarossa (1478–1546) Robert Ruffin Barrow (1798–1875), American plantation owner who owned more than 450 slaves and a dozen plantations Judah P. Benjamin (1811–1884), Secretary of State for the Confederate States of America and a U.S. Senator from Louisiana Thomas H. Benton (1782–1858), American senator from Missouri John M. Berrien (1781–1856), U.S. Senator from Georgia William Wyatt Bibb (1781–1821), U.S. Congressman and 1st Governor of Alabama James Blair (c. 1788–1841), British MP who owned sugar plantations in Demerara Simón Bolívar (1783–1830), Latin American independence leader Shadrach Bond (1773–1832), 1st Governor of Illinois John C. Breckinridge (1821–1875), 14th Vice President of the United States and Confederate Secretary of War Brennus, a Gallic chieftain who led a sack of Rome in 387 BC Preston Brooks (1819–1857), veteran of the Mexican–American War and U.S. Congressman from South Carolina James Brown (1766–1835), U.S. Minister to France, U.S. Senator, and sugarcane planter, some of whose slaves were involved in the 1811 German Coast Uprising in present-day Louisiana Chang and Eng Bunker (1811–1874) Pierce Butler (1744–1822) 3. C ---- Augustus Caesar (63 BC–14 AD), Roman emperor Julius Caesar (100–44 BC), Roman dictator John C. Calhoun (1782–1850), 7th Vice President of the United States Meredith Calhoun (1805–1869), enslaver and newspaper editor in Grant Parish, Louisiana Caligula (AD 12–41), Roman emperor Carlos Manuel de Cespedes (1819–1874), hero of Cuban independence Landon Carter (1710–1778), Virginia planter Girolamo Cassar (c. 1520 – c. 1592), Maltese architect who owned at least two slaves Cato the Elder (234–149 BC), Roman statesman Auguste Chouteau (1749/1750–1829), co-founder of the city of St. Louis, Missouri Pierre Chouteau (1758–1849), half-brother of Auguste Chouteau and defendant in a freedom suit by Marguerite Scypion Cicero (106–43 BC), Roman statesman and philosopher Daniel Clark (1766–1813), Louisiana politician William Clark (1770–1838), American explorer and territorial governor famed for leading the Lewis and Clark expedition Claudius (10 BC–54 AD), Roman emperor Henry Clay (1777–1852), United States Secretary of State and Speaker of the House Howell Cobb (1815–1868), U.S. Congressman, Secretary of the Treasury, 19th Speaker of the House, and 40th Governor of Georgia Edward Coles (1786–1868), 2nd Governor of Illinois Alfred H. Colquitt (1824–1894), U.S. Congressman, 49th Governor of Georgia, and Confederate Army Major General Christopher Columbus (1451–1506) Philip Cook (1817–1894), U.S. Congressman and Confederate general Samuel Cooper (1798–1876), United States Army staff officer and Confederate general Hernán Cortés (1485–1547) George W. Crawford (1798–1872), 21st U.S. Secretary of War, 38th Governor of Georgia, and U.S. Congressman 4. D ---- David (c. 1000 BC), ancient King of Israel Jefferson Davis (1808–1889), President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War Joseph Davis (1784–1870), eldest brother of Jefferson Davis and one of the wealthiest antebellum planters in Mississippi Demosthenes (384–322 BC), Athenian statesman and orator Jean Noël Destréhan (1754–1823), Louisiana plantation owner at whose plantation one of the tribunals was held following the 1811 German Coast Uprising Henry Dodge (1782–1867), 1st and 4th Governor of the Wisconsin Territory Stephen A. Douglas (1813–1861), U.S. Senator from Illinois and 1860 U.S. Democratic presidential candidate Stephen Duncan (1787–1867), doctor from Pennsylvania who became the wealthiest Southern cotton planter before the American Civil War, with 14 plantations 5. E ---- Peter Early (1773–1818), U.S. Congressman and 28th Governor of Georgia Ninian Edwards (1775–1833), Governor of Illinois Territory and 3rd Governor of Illinois William Ellison (1790–1861), an American slave and later a slave owner Edwin Epps, owner of Solomon Northup, author ofTwelve Years a Slave, for 10 years 6. F ---- Rebecca L. Felton (1835–1930), first female U.S. Senator and oldest Senator to be sworn in (at the age of 87; served one day in 1922) Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790), American statesman and philosopher Nathan Bedford Forrest (1821–1877), Confederate general John Forsyth (1780–1841), U.S. Congressman, U.S. Senator, 13th U.S. Secretary of State, and 33rd Governor of Georgia who was involved with United States v. The Amistad 7. G ---- Horatio Gates (1727–1806), American general during the American Revolutionary War Edward James Gay, U.S. Congressional representative from Louisiana Ghezo, King of the Dahomey in present-day Benin from 1818 to 1858 Sir John Gladstone (1764–1851), British politician Ulysses S. Grant (1822–1885), 18th President of the United States 8. H ---- Hadrian (76–138 AD), Roman emperor James Henry Hammond (1807–1864), U.S. Senator and state governor Wade Hampton I (c. 1752 – 1835), American general, Congressman, and planter Wade Hampton II (1791–1858), American soldier and planter with land holdings in three states Wade Hampton III (1818–1902), U.S. Senator, state governor, Confederate major general, and planter John Hancock (1737–1793), American statesman Hannibal (247 – 183/181 BC) Christopher Helme (1603–1650) Patrick Henry (1736–1799), American statesman and orator Thomas Heyward Jr. (1746–1809), South Carolina circuit court judge, planter, and signer of the U.S. Declaration of Independence Arthur William Hodge (1763–1811), British Virgin Islands planter who was executed for the murder of a slave Thomas C. Hindman (1828–1868), American politician, Confederate general, and planter Horace (65–8 BC), Roman poet Sam Houston (1793–1863), U.S. Senator, President of the Republic of Texas, 6th Governor of Tennessee, and 7th Governor of Texas Hjörleifr Hróðmarsson, an early settler of Iceland Eppa Hunton, U.S. Senator from Virginia and a Confederate officer 9. J ---- Andrew Jackson (1767–1845), 7th President of the United States William James (1791–1861), English Radical politician John Jay (1745–1829), 1st Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), 3rd President of the United States Andrew Johnson (1808–1875), 17th President of the United States Anthony Johnson, black slaveholder in colonial Virginia Richard Mentor Johnson (1780–1850), 9th Vice President of the United States Robert W. Johnson (1814–1879), American politician 10. K ----- Francis Scott Key (1779–1843), author of "The Star-Spangled Banner" William R. King (1786–1853), 13th Vice President of the United States 11. L ----- Henry Laurens (1724–1792), 5th President of the Continental Congress Fenda Lawrence, 18th-century African slave trader Delphine LaLaurie (c. 1780–1849), alleged serial killer John Lamont (1782–1850), Scottish emigrant and sugar planter in Trinidad Richard Bland Lee (1761–1827), American politician Domitia Lepida, female of the Roman imperial dynasty Edward Long (1734–1813), English colonial administrator and planter in Jamaica William Lowndes (1782–1822), American politician 12. M ----- Majid bin Said of Zanzibar (1837–1870) Thuwaini bin Said, Sultan of Muscat and Oman (1821–1866) James Madison (1751–1836), 4th President of the United States Ferdinand Magellan (c. 1480–1521), Portuguese navigator William Mahone (1826–1895), Confederate general and U.S. Senator from Virginia John Lawrence Manning (1816–1889), 65th Governor of South Carolina John Marshall (1755–1835), 4th Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court Yaqub al-Mansur (1160–1199) George Mason (1725–1792), Virginia planter, politician, and delegate to the US Constitutional Convention of 1787 James McGill, founder of McGill University in Montreal, Canada Henry Middleton (1717–1784), 2nd President of the Continental Congress John Milledge (1757–1818), U.S. Congressman and 26th Governor of Georgia Robert Milligan, (1746–1809) Scottish merchant and ship-owner James Monroe (1758–1831), 5th President of the United States Montezuma II (c. 1480–1520), the last Aztec emperor Frank A. Montgomery (1830–1903), American politician and Confederate cavalry officer Jackson Morton (1794–1874), American politician Muhammad (570–632 AD), last prophet in Islam Hercules Mulligan (1740–1825), tailor and spy during the American Revolutionary War 13. N ----- Naaman, Syrian general in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) Nero (37–68 AD), Roman emperor John Newton (1725–1807), British slave trader and later abolitionist Nicias (470–413 BC) 14. P ----- Colonel John Page (Middle Plantation) Richard Pennant, 1st Baron Penrhyn (1737–1808) John J. Pettus (1813–1867), 20th and 23rd Governor of Mississippi Philemon (? – 68), bishop of Gaza and one of the Seventy Disciples Philip III of Macedon (359–317 BC), king of Macedonia Plato Vedius Pollio James K. Polk (1795–1849), 11th President of the United States Leonidas Polk (1806–1864), planter, Episcopal bishop, and Confederate general Pompey (106–48 BC) Ptolemy I of Egypt Ptolemy II of Egypt (309–246 BC) Ptolemy III of Egypt Ptolemy IV of Egypt Ptolemy V of Egypt Ptolemy VI of Egypt (185–145 BC) Ptolemy VII of Egypt Ptolemy VIII of Egypt (182–116 BC) Ptolemy IX of Egypt (143/142 – 81 BC) Ptolemy X of Egypt (117–51 BC) Ptolemy XI of Egypt Ptolemy XII of Egypt Ptolemy XIII of Egypt (62/61 – 47 BC) Ptolemy XIV of Egypt (60/59 – 44 BC) Ptolemy of Mauretania (13/9 BC – 40 AD) 15. R ----- J. G. M. Ramsey (1797–1884), American historian, physician, planter, and businessman Edmund Randolph (1753–1813), American statesman John Randolph (1773–1833), American statesman Stedman Rawlins (c. 1784 – 1830), English Governor of Saint Christopher (Saint Kitts) and plantation owner John Reynolds (1788–1865), 4th Governor of Illinois 16. S ----- William K. Sebastian (1812–1865), American politician Ismail Ibn Sharif (1632–1727) Solomon (990–931 BC), ancient King of Israel D. H. Starbuck (1818–1887), North Carolina lawyer, judge, and political figure who served as United States Attorney for the entire state Peter Burwell Starke (1813–1888), politician and Confederate general Alexander H. Stephens (1812–1883), Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War Sulla (138–78 BC), Roman consul and dictator Mary Surratt (1823–1865), alleged conspirator in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln and the first woman executed by the U.S. federal government 17. T ----- Clemente Tabone (c. 1575 – 1665), Maltese landowner who owned at least two slaves Lawrence Taliaferro (1794–1871), played a role in the Dred Scott decision in the United States Roger Taney (1777–1864), 5th Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court Zachary Taylor (1784–1850), 12th President of the United States Tegbessou Edward Telfair (1735–1807), 19th Governor of Georgia Tewodros I, Emperor of Abyssinia George Henry Thomas, Union General in the American Civil War Tiberius Madam Tinubu (1810–1887) Tippu Tip (1832–1905) Tiradentes (1746–1792) Alex Tizon (1959–2017) Robert Toombs (1810–1885), U.S. Congressman, 1st Confederate Secretary of State, and brigadier general in the Confederate Army George Trenholm (1807–1876), American financier George Troup (1780–1856), U.S. Congressman and 32nd Governor of Georgia Homaidan Al-Turki John Tyler (1790–1862), 10th President of the United States 18. V ----- Martin Van Buren (1782–1862), 8th President of the United States Jacques Villeré (1761–1830), Governor of Louisiana William Vogel (1770-1836), State Senator of Virginia 19. W ----- George Walton (1749–1804), Governor of Georgia, U.S. Senator, and signer of the U.S. Declaration of Independence Joshua John Ward (1800–1853), Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina and "the king of the rice planters", whose estate was once the largest slaveholder in the United States (1,130 slaves) George Washington (1732–1799), 1st President of the United States Martha Washington (1731–1802), 1st U.S. First Lady James Moore Wayne (1790–1867), U.S. Congressman and Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court Thomas H. Watts (1819–1892), 18th Governor of Alabama John Wedderburn of Ballendean (1729–1803), known for being the defendant in a freedom suit brought by Joseph Knight John H. Wheeler (1806–1882), U.S. Cabinet official and North Carolina planter known for two female slaves who escaped his domain, Jane Johnson and Hannah Bond George Whitefield (1714–1770), English Methodist preacher John Winthrop (1587/88–1649), one of the leading figures in founding the Massachusetts Bay Colony and the 3rd Governor of Massachusetts 20. Y ----- Marie-Marguerite d'Youville, the first native-born Canadian to be declared a Catholic saint

  • Miscegenation


    Miscegenation () is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation, particularly mixing that is perceived to negatively impact the purity of a particular race or culture. Anti-miscegenation is a prominent theme of white supremacy. Though the notion that racial mixing is undesirable has arisen at different points in history, it gained particular prominence in Europe during the era of colonialism. The term miscegenation entered the English language in the 19th century as racial segregation began to become more formalized in the United States. It was used specifically to refer to interracial marriage and interracial sexual relations, and more generally to the process of genetic admixture. The term came to be associated with laws banning interracial marriage and sex, known as anti-miscegenation laws. The term miscegenation is virtually always used to refer to racist ideologies. When speaking about mixed-race relationships in a more neutral context, terms such as interracial, interethnic, or even cross-cultural are more common in contemporary usage.

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