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  • International taxation


    International taxation is the study or determination of tax on a person or business subject to the tax laws of different countries or the international aspects of an individual country's tax laws as the case may be. Governments usually limit the scope of their income taxation in some manner territorially or provide for offsets to taxation relating to extraterritorial income. The manner of limitation generally takes the form of a territorial, residence-based, or exclusionary system. Some governments have attempted to mitigate the differing limitations of each of these three broad systems by enacting a hybrid system with characteristics of two or more. Many governments tax individuals and/or enterprises on income. Such systems of taxation vary widely, and there are no broad general rules. These variations create the potential for double taxation (where the same income is taxed by different countries) and no taxation (where income is not taxed by any country). Income tax systems may impose tax on local income only or on worldwide income. Generally, where worldwide income is taxed, reductions of tax or foreign credits are provided for taxes paid to other jurisdictions.

  • Taxation in Sweden


    Taxation in Sweden on salaries for an employee involves contributing to three different levels of government: the municipality, the county council, and the central government. Social security contributions are paid to finance the social security system. Income tax on salaries is deducted by the employer (a PAYE system) and paid directly by the employer to the Swedish Tax Agency (Skatteverket). The effective taxation rate in Sweden is commonly cited as among the highest in the world; see list of countries by tax rates. Total tax revenue as a percentage of GDP for Sweden over the past several decades compared to other highly developed states Sweden has a taxation system for income from work that combines an income tax (paid by the employee) with social security contributions (employers contributions) that are paid by the employer. The total salary cost for the employer is thereby the gross salary plus the social security contributions. The employer makes monthly preliminary deductions (PAYE) for income tax and also pays the social security contributions to the Swedish Tax Agency.

  • Income tax in the Netherlands


    Income tax in the Netherlands (personal, rather than corporate) is regulated by the Wet inkomstenbelasting 2001 (Income Tax Law, 2001). The fiscal year is the same as the calendar year. Before April 1 citizens have to report their income from the previous year. The system integrates the income tax with fees paid for the general old age pension system (AOW), the pension system for partners of deceased people (ANW), and the national insurance system for special medical care (WLZ). There are three categories of income, each with their own tax rates. They are referred to as "boxes".

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