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  • Timing belt (camshaft)

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    Timing belt A timing belt, timing chain, or cambelt is a part of an internal combustion engine that synchronizes the rotation of the crankshaft and the camshaft(s) so that the engine's valves open and close at the proper times during each cylinder's intake and exhaust strokes. In an interference engine the timing belt or chain is also critical to preventing the piston from striking the valves. A timing belt is usually a toothed belt—a drive belt with teeth on the inside surface. A timing chain is a roller chain. Cosworth BDR engine, with timing belt and pulleys Many modern production automobile engines use a timing belt to synchronize crankshaft and camshaft rotation; some engines, particularly cam in block designs, used gears to drive the camshaft, but this was rare for OHC designs. The use of a timing belt or chain instead of gear drive enables engine designers to place the camshaft(s) further from the crankshaft, and in engines with multiple camshafts a timing belt or chain also enables the camshafts to be placed further from each other.

  • Hydraulic tappet

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    A hydraulic tappet, also known as a hydraulic valve lifter or hydraulic lash adjuster, is a device for maintaining zero valve clearance in an internal combustion engine. Conventional solid valve lifters require regular adjusting to maintain a small clearance between the valve and its rocker or cam follower. This space prevents the parts from binding as they expand with the engine's heat, but can also lead to noisy operation and increased wear as the parts rattle against one another until they reach operating temperature. The hydraulic lifter was designed to compensate for this small tolerance, allowing the valve train to operate with zero clearance—leading to quieter operation, longer engine life, and eliminating the need for periodic adjustment of valve clearance. The hydraulic lifter, situated between the camshaft and each engine's valve, is a hollow steel cylinder encasing an internal piston. This piston is held at the outer limit of its travel with a strong spring.

  • Cam

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    Fig. 1 Animation showing rotating cams and cam followers producing reciprocating motion. Elliptical disk cam with oscillating follower. A cam is a rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion into linear motion. It is often a part of a rotating wheel (e.g. an eccentric wheel) or shaft (e.g. a cylinder with an irregular shape) that strikes a lever at one or more points on its circular path. The cam can be a simple tooth, as is used to deliver pulses of power to a steam hammer, for example, or an eccentric disc or other shape that produces a smooth reciprocating (back and forth) motion in the follower, which is a lever making contact with the cam.

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