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  • Antiestrogen


    Antiestrogens, also known as estrogen antagonists or estrogen blockers, are a class of drugs which prevent estrogens like estradiol from mediating their biological effects in the body. They act by blocking the estrogen receptor (ER) and/or inhibiting or suppressing estrogen production. Antiestrogens are one of three types of sex hormone antagonists, the others being antiandrogens and antiprogestogens.

  • Side effects of cyproterone acetate


    The side effects of cyproterone acetate (CPA), a steroidal antiandrogen and progestin, including its frequent and rare side effects, have been studied and characterized. It is generally well-tolerated and has a mild side-effect profile, regardless of dosage, when it used as a progestin or antiandrogen in combination with an estrogen such as ethinylestradiol or estradiol valerate in women. Side effects of CPA include hypogonadism and associated symptoms such as demasculinization, sexual dysfunction, infertility, and osteoporosis; breast changes such as breast tenderness, enlargement, and gynecomastia; emotional changes such as fatigue and depression; and other side effects such as vitamin B12 deficiency, weak glucocorticoid effects, and elevated liver enzymes. Weight gain can occur with CPA when it is used at high doses. Some of the side effects of CPA can be improved or fully prevented if it is combined with an estrogen to prevent estrogen deficiency. Little quantitative data are available on many of the potential side effects of CPA. At very high doses in aged men with prostate cancer, CPA can cause cardiovascular side effects.

  • Estrogen (medication)


    An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy. They can also be used in the treatment of hormone-sensitive cancers like breast cancer and prostate cancer and for various other indications. Estrogens are used alone or in combination with progestogens. They are available in a wide variety of formulations and for use by many different routes of administration. Estrogens are one of three types of sex hormone agonists, the others being androgens/anabolic steroids like testosterone and progestogens like progesterone. Side effects of estrogens include breast tenderness, breast enlargement, headache, nausea, fluid retention, and edema among others. Other side effects of estrogens include an increased risk of blood clots, cardiovascular disease, and, when combined with most progestogens, breast cancer. In men, estrogens can cause breast development, feminization, infertility, low testosterone levels, and sexual dysfunction among others. Estrogens are agonists of the estrogen receptors, the biological targets of endogenous estrogens like estradiol.

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