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  • Ancylostoma caninum


    Ancylostoma caninum is a species of nematode known as a hookworm, which principally infects the small intestine of dogs. The result of A. caninum infection ranges from asymptomatic cases to death of the dog; better nourishment, increasing age, prior A. caninum exposure, or vaccination are all linked to improved survival. Other hosts include carnivores such as wolves, foxes, and cats, with a small number of cases having been reported in humans. Warm and moist conditions are important to allow survival of A. caninum during the free-living stages of its lifecycle, so it is largely restricted to temperate, tropical, and subtropical regions. In parts of the world where these climatic requirements are met such as Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, and Malaysia, A. caninum is the main cause of hookworm disease in canines.

  • Uncinaria stenocephala


    Uncinaria stenocephala is a nematode that parasitizes dogs, cats, and foxes as well as humans. It is rare to find in cats in the United States. The common name is the northern hookworm of dogs.

  • Hookworm infection


    Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite known as a hookworm. Initially, itching and a rash may occur at the site of infection. Those only affected by a few worms may show no symptoms. Those infected by many worms may experience abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and tiredness. The mental and physical development of children may be affected. Anemia may result. Two common hookworm infections in humans are ancylostomiasis and necatoriasis, caused by the species Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus respectively. Hookworm eggs are deposited in the stools of infected people. If these end up in the environment, they can hatch into larvae (immature worms), which can then penetrate the skin. One type can also be spread through contaminated food. Risk factors include walking barefoot in warm climates, where sanitation is poor. Diagnosis is by examination of a stool sample with a microscope. The disease can be prevented on an individual level by not walking barefoot in areas where the disease is common. At a population level, decreasing outdoor defecation, not using raw feces as fertilizer, and mass deworming is effective. Treatment is typically with the medications albendazole or mebendazole for one to three days. Iron supplements may be needed in those with anemia. Hookworms infected about 428 million people in 2015. Heavy infections can occur in both children and adults, but are less common in adults. They are rarely fatal. Hookworm infection is a soil-transmitted helminthiasis and classified as a neglected tropical disease.

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