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  • Achilles tendinitis

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    Achilles tendinitis, also known as achilles tendinopathy, is when the Achilles tendon, found at the back of the ankle, becomes irritated. The most common symptoms are pain and swelling around the affected tendon. The pain is typically worse at the start of exercise and decreases thereafter. Stiffness of the ankle may also be present. Onset is generally gradual. It commonly occurs as a result of overuse such as running. Other risk factors include trauma, a lifestyle that includes little exercise, high-heel shoes, rheumatoid arthritis, and medications of the fluoroquinolone or steroid class. Diagnosis is generally based on symptoms and examination. While stretching and exercises to strengthen the calf are often recommended for prevention, evidence to support these measures is poor. Treatment typically involves rest, ice, non-steroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs), and physical therapy. A heel lift or orthotics may also be helpful. In those in who symptoms last more than six months despite other treatments, surgery may be considered. Achilles tendinitis is relatively common.

  • Heel tap sign

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    Heel tap sign, also called heel-jar or jar tenderness, is a clinical sign to identify appendicitis. It is found in patients with localized peritonitis. With the patient supine the right heel is elevated by 10-20 degrees is hit firmly with palm of the examiner's hand. The prehospital equivalent of this sign is when pain is elicited as the ambulance hits bumps and potholes during the transport of the patient. Pain may be severe and may radiate to other areas with movement. It is similar to rebound tenderness, but may be easier to elicit when the patient has firm abdominal wall muscles. Abdominal pain on walking or running is an equivalent sign.

  • Plantar fasciitis

    serch.it?q=Plantar-fasciitis

    Plantar fasciitis is a disorder of the connective tissue which supports the arch of the foot. It results in pain in the heel and bottom of the foot that is usually most severe with the first steps of the day or following a period of rest. Pain is also frequently brought on by bending the foot and toes up towards the shin. The pain typically comes on gradually, and it affects both feet in about one third of cases. The causes of plantar fasciitis are not entirely clear. Risk factors include overuse such as from long periods of standing, an increase in exercise, and obesity. It is also associated with inward rolling of the foot, a tight Achilles tendon, and a lifestyle that involves little exercise. While heel spurs are frequently found it is unclear if they have a role in causing the condition. Plantar fasciitis is a disorder of the insertion site of the ligament on the bone characterized by micro tears, breakdown of collagen, and scarring. Since inflammation plays either a lesser or no role, a review proposed it be renamed plantar fasciosis. The diagnosis is typically based on signs and symptoms; ultrasound is sometimes useful. Other conditions with similar symptoms include osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, heel pad syndrome, and reactive arthritis. Most cases of plantar fasciitis resolve with time and conservative methods of treatment. For the first few weeks, those affected are usually advised to rest, change their activities, take pain medications, and stretch. If this is not sufficient, physiotherapy, orthotics, splinting, or steroid injections may be options. If these measures are not effective, extracorporeal shockwave therapy or surgery may be tried. Between 4% and 7% of the general population has heel pain at any given time: about 80% of these are due to plantar fasciitis. Approximately 10% of people have the disorder at some point during their life. It becomes more common with age. It is unclear if one sex is more affected than the other.

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