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  • Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome

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    Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) is defined as adrenal gland failure due to bleeding into the adrenal glands, commonly caused by severe bacterial infection: Typically it is caused by Neisseria meningitidis. The bacterial infection leads to massive bleeding into one or (usually) both adrenal glands. It is characterized by overwhelming bacterial infection meningococcemia leading to massive blood invasion, organ failure, coma, low blood pressure and shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with widespread purpura, rapidly developing adrenocortical insufficiency and death.

  • Cerebrospinal fluid leak

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    A cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF leak) is a medical condition where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain or spinal cord leaks out of one or more holes or tears in the dura mater. CSF leaks are often further classified according to the cause. An iatrogenic or traumatic CSF leak has an identified cause such as a lumbar puncture (noted by a post-dural-puncture headache), surgery or physical trauma; while a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak has an unknown cause. CSF leaks are associated with heritable connective tissue disorders including Marfan Syndrome and Ehlers Danlos Syndrome.

  • Myelitis

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    Myelitis is inflammation of the spinal cord which can disrupt the normal responses from the brain to the rest of the body, and from the rest of the body to the brain. Inflammation in the spinal cord, can cause the myelin and axon to be damaged resulting in symptoms such as paralysis and sensory loss. Myelitis is classified to several categories depending on the area or the cause of the lesion; however, any inflammatory attack on the spinal cord is often referred to as transverse myelitis.

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