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  • Body odor


    Body odor (American English) or body odour (British English) is present in humans and other animals, and its intensity can be influenced by many factors (behavioral patterns, survival strategies). Body odor has a strong genetic basis, but it can be also strongly influenced by various diseases and physiological conditions. Body odor is generally considered to be an unpleasant odor among many human cultures.

  • Biochemistry of body odor


    The biochemistry of body odor pertains to the chemical compounds in the body responsible for body odor and their kinetics. Body odor encompasses axillary (underarm) odor and foot odor. It is caused by a combination of sweat gland secretions and normal skin microflora. In addition, androstane steroids and the ABCC11 transporter are essential for most axillary odor. Body odor is a complex phenomenon, with numerous compounds and catalysts involved in its genesis. Secretions from sweat glands are initially odorless, but preodoriferous compounds or malodor precursors in the secretions are transformed by skin surface bacteria into volatile odorous compounds that are responsible for body malodor. Water and nutrients secreted by sweat glands also contribute to body odor by creating an ideal environment for supporting the growth of skin surface bacteria. There are three types of sweat glands: eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine.

  • Trimethylaminuria


    Trimethylaminuria (TMAU; primary trimethylaminuria), also known as fish odor syndrome or fish malodor syndrome, is a rare metabolic disorder that causes a defect in the normal production of an enzyme named flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). When FMO3 is not working correctly or if not enough enzyme is produced, the body loses the ability to properly convert trimethylamine (TMA) from precursor compounds in food digestion into trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), through a process called N-oxidation. Trimethylamine then builds up and is released in the person's sweat, urine, and breath, giving off a strong fishy odor or strong body odor. A variant of TMAU (secondary trimethylaminuria or TMAU2) exists where there is no genetic cause, yet excessive TMA is secreted, possibly due to intestinal dysbiosis, altered metabolism, or hormonal causes.

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