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  • Side stitch

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    Side stitch (also called a side ache, a side cramp, a side crampie, a side sticker or simply the stitch) is an intense stabbing pain under the lower edge of the ribcage that occurs while exercising. It is also referred to as exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Some people think that this abdominal pain may be caused by the internal organs (like the liver and stomach) pulling downwards on the diaphragm, but that hypothesis is inconsistent with its frequent occurrence during swimming, which involves almost no downward force on these organs. If the pain is present only when exercising and is completely absent at rest, in an otherwise healthy person, it does not require investigation.

  • Rotator cuff tear

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    A rotator cuff tear is an injury of one or more of the tendons or muscles of the rotator cuff of the shoulder. Symptoms may include shoulder pain, which is often worse with movement, or weakness. This may limit peoples’ ability to brush their hair or put on clothing. Clicking may also occur with movement of the arm. Tears may occur as the result of a sudden force or gradually over time. Risk factors include certain repetitive activities, smoking, and a family history of the condition. Diagnosis is based on symptoms, examination, and medical imaging. The rotator cuff is made up of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. The supraspinatus is the most commonly affected. Treatment may include pain medication such as NSAIDs and specific exercises. It is recommended that people who are unable to raise their arm above 90 degrees after 2 weeks should be further assessed. In severe cases surgery may be indicated. Rotator cuff tears are common. Those over the age of 40 are most often affected. The condition has been described since at least the early 1800s.

  • Poor posture

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    Poor posture is the posture that results from certain muscles tightening up or shortening while others lengthen and become weak which often occurs as a result of one's daily activities. There are different factors which can impact on posture and they include occupational activities and biomechanical factors such as force and repetition. Risk factors for poor posture also include psychosocial factors such as job stress and strain. Workers who have higher job stress are more likely to develop neck and shoulder symptoms.

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