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What is red tide? HABs are a worldwide phenomenon. Red tide is caused by a microscopic algae, Karenia brevis. K. brevis can kill large numbers of fish and other sealife including dolphins and manatees... K. brevis produces airborne toxins that can cause respiratory irritation. Red tide can ...
So what is causing the red tide along Florida’s West Coast? Red tide in Florida is caused by K. brevis algae blooms that start miles offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. According to Start1.org, the red tide originates 10 to 50 miles offshore along the continental shelf. Some scientists think the Loop Current, which brings Caribbean seawater to Florida’s West Coast may initiate a bloom by causing an upwelling of nutrients as the force of the current surges against the shelf, thus creating ...
Wind and currents push thousands of dead fish together in a massive fish kill during the red tide bloom off the coast of Sanibel, Florida.
A forecast from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration predicts red tide conditions in the medium range through Friday in Palm Beach County, which could affect those with chronic ...
Red tides are caused by a type of algae called a dinoflagellate, which also is ubiquitous in lakes, rivers, estuaries and the oceans. But the particular species that causes red tide blooms, which can literally make water look blood red, occur only in saltwater.
Red tide in Florida and Texas is caused by the rapid growth of a microscopic algae called Karenia brevis. When large amounts of this algae are present, it can cause a harmful algal bloom (HAB) that can be seen from space.
How does the Florida red tide caused by Karenia brevis, kill fish? Karenia brevis, the Florida red tide organism, kills fish by producing a potent toxin (called brevetoxin) that affects the central nervous system of the fish. The toxin can also affect birds, sea turtles, mammals and other marine animals. Back to Top. Are red tides new to Florida?
A red tide is one type of harmful algal bloom. Blooms occur when colonies of algae--simple ocean plants that live in the sea--grow out of control while producing toxic or harmful effects on people, fish, shellfish, marine mammals and birds.
A dog swimming through an algal bloom. A harmful algal bloom (HAB) are organisms that can severely lower oxygen levels in natural waters, killing marine life. Some HABs are associated with algae-produced toxins. Blooms can last from a few days to many months. After the bloom dies, the microbes which decompose the dead algae use up even more of the oxygen, which can create fish die-offs. When these zones of depleted oxygen cover a large area for an extended period of time, they are referred to as dead zones, where neither fish nor plants are able to survive. HABs are induced by an overabundance of nutrients in the water. The two most common nutrients are fixed nitrogen (nitrates, ammonia, urea) and phosphate. These nutrients are emitted by agriculture, other industries, excessive fertilizer use in urban/suburban areas and associated urban runoff. Higher water temperature and low circulation are contributing factors. HABs can cause significant harm to animals, the environment and economies. They have been increasing in size and frequency worldwide, a fact that many experts attribute to global climate change. The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) predicts more harmful blooms in the Pacific Ocean.
Brevetoxin (PbTx), or brevetoxins, are a suite of cyclic polyether compounds produced naturally by a species of dinoflagellate known as Karenia brevis. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins that bind to voltage-gated sodium channels in nerve cells, leading to disruption of normal neurological processes and causing the illness clinically described as neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). Although brevetoxins are most well-studied in K. brevis, they are also found in other species of Karenia and at least one large fish kill has been traced to brevetoxins in Chattonella. Brevetoxin A Brevetoxin Bchemical structure Brevetoxin A Brevetoxin Bsubtypes Brevetoxin-1 (PbTx-1) R = -CH2C(=CH2)CHO Brevetoxin-7 (PbTx-7) R = -CH2C(=CH2)CH2OH Brevetoxin-10 (PbTx-10) R = -CH2CH(-CH3)CH2OH Brevetoxin-2 (PbTx-2) R = -CH2C(=CH2)CHO Brevetoxin-3 (PbTx-3) R = -CH2C(=CH2)CH2OH Brevetoxin-8 (PbTx-8) R = -CH2COCH2Cl Brevetoxin-9 (PbTx-9) R = -CH2CH(CH3)CH2OHOther Brevetoxins: Brevetoxin-5 (PbTx-5): like PbTx-3, but acetylated hydroxyl group in position 38. Brevetoxin-6 (PbTx-6): like PbTx-2, but double bond 27-28 is epoxidated.Brevetoxin-B was synthesized in 1995 by K. C.
Red tide in a harbor, JapanRed tide is a common name for algae blooms, which are large concentrations of aquatic microorganisms (protozoans or unicellular algae such as dinoflagellates and diatoms). The upwelling of nutrients from the sea floor, often following massive storms, provides for the algae and triggers bloom events. Harmful algal blooms can occur worldwide, and natural cycles can vary regionally. The growth and persistence of an algal bloom depends on wind direction and strength, temperature, nutrients, and salinity. Red tide species can be found in oceans, bays, and estuaries, but they cannot thrive in freshwater environments. Certain species of phytoplankton and dinoflagellates found in red tides contain photosynthetic pigments that vary in color from brown to red. When the algae are present in high concentrations, the water may appear to be discolored or murky. The most conspicuous effects of red tides are the associated wildlife mortalities and harmful human exposure. The production of natural toxins such as brevetoxins and ichthyotoxins are harmful to marine life.