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human noroviruses belong to one of three norovirus genogroups (GI, GII, or GIV), which are further divided into >25 genetic clusters. Over 75% of confirmed human norovirus infections are associated with genotype GII. Clinical manifestations The average incubation period for norovirus-associated gastroenteritis is 12 to 48 hours, with a median period
Only a few norovirus particles can make other people sick. You are most contagious. when you have symptoms of norovirus illness, especially vomiting, and; during the first few days after you recover from norovirus illness. However, studies have shown that you can still spread norovirus for two weeks or more after you feel better.
The incubation period is 12–48 hours. Other symptoms include abdominal cramps, nausea, and sometimes a low-grade fever. Illness is generally self-limited, and full recovery can be expected in 1–3 days for most patients.
Trends and Outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are common. This is because the virus spreads very easily and quickly from infected people to others, and through contaminated foods and surfaces. Outbreaks happen throughout the year, but they occur most often from November to April.
Incubation period of norovirus is 12-48 hours, after which symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea begin. The infection can be treated and prevented.
When a person becomes infected with norovirus, the virus begins to multiply within the small intestine. After approximately 1 to 2 days, norovirus symptoms can appear. This period between the norovirus transmission and the start of norovirus symptoms is known as the "norovirus incubation period." In some cases, the norovirus incubation period can be as short as 12 hours after exposure.
Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis. Infection is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Blood is not usually present. Fever or headaches may also occur. This usually develops 12 to 48 hours after being exposed. Recovery typically occurs within 1 to 3 days. Complications may include dehydration. The virus is usually spread by the fecal–oral route. This may be by contaminated food or water or person-to-person contact. It may also spread via contaminated surfaces or through the air. Risk factors include unsanitary food preparation and sharing close quarters. Diagnosis is generally based on symptoms. Confirmatory testing may be done for public health purposes. Prevention involves proper hand washing and disinfection of contaminated surfaces. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are less effective. A vaccine does not exist. There is no specific treatment. Efforts involve supportive care such as drinking sufficient fluids or intravenous fluids. Oral rehydration solutions are the preferred fluids to drink, although other drinks without caffeine or alcohol can help. Norovirus results in about 685 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths globally a year. It is common both in the developed and developing world. Those under the age of five are most often affected and in this group it results in about 50,000 deaths in the developing world. Disease more commonly occurs in winter months. It often occurs in outbreaks, especially among those living in close quarters. In the United States it is the cause of about half of food-borne disease outbreaks. The disease is named after Norwalk, Ohio, where an outbreak occurred in 1968.
Sapovirus is a genetically diverse genus of single-stranded positive-sense RNA, non-enveloped viruses within the Caliciviridae family. Together with norovirus, sapoviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis (commonly called the "stomach flu" although it is not related to influenza) in humans and other animals. Natural hosts for the virus are humans and swine. The virus is transmitted through oral/fecal contact. Sapovirus most commonly occurs in children and infants and therefore is often spread in nurseries and daycares; however, it has been found in long term care facilities. This could be due to a lack of personal hygiene and sanitation measures. Symptoms most commonly include diarrhea and vomiting. The sapovirus was initially discovered in an outbreak of gastroenteritis in an orphanage in Sapporo, Japan, 1977.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract—the stomach and small intestine. Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Fever, lack of energy, and dehydration may also occur. This typically lasts less than two weeks. It is not related to influenza though it has been called the "stomach flu". Gastroenteritis is usually caused by viruses. However, bacteria, parasites, and fungus can also cause gastroenteritis. In children, rotavirus is the most common cause of severe disease. In adults, norovirus and Campylobacter are common causes. Eating improperly prepared food, drinking contaminated water, or close contact with a person who is infected can spread the disease. Treatment is generally the same with or without a definitive diagnosis, so testing to confirm is usually not needed. Prevention includes hand washing with soap, drinking clean water, proper disposal of human waste, and breastfeeding babies instead of using formula. The rotavirus vaccine is recommended as a prevention for children. Treatment involves getting enough fluids. For mild or moderate cases, this can typically be achieved by drinking oral rehydration solution (a combination of water, salts, and sugar). In those who are breast fed, continued breastfeeding is recommended. For more severe cases, intravenous fluids may be needed. Fluids may also be given by a nasogastric tube. Zinc supplementation is recommended in children. Antibiotics are generally not needed. However, antibiotics are recommended for young children with a fever and bloody diarrhea. In 2015 two billion cases of gastroenteritis resulted in 1.3 million deaths globally. Children and those in the developing world are affected the most. In 2011, about 1.7 billion cases resulting in about 700,000 deaths of children under the age of five. In the developing world children less than two years of age frequently get six or more infections a year. It is less common in adults, partly due to the development of immunity.