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  • Endometritis


    Endometritis is inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium). Symptoms may include fever, lower abdominal pain, and abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge. It is the most common cause of infection after childbirth. It is also part of spectrum of diseases that make up pelvic inflammatory disease. Endometritis is divided into acute and chronic forms. The acute form is usually from an infection that passes through the cervix as a result of an abortion, during menstruation, following childbirth, or as a result of douching or placement of an IUD. Risk factors for endometritis following delivery include Caesarean section and prolonged rupture of membranes. Chronic endometritis is more common after menopause. The diagnosis may be confirmed by endometrial biopsy. Ultrasound may be useful to verify that there is no retained tissue within the uterus. Treatment is usually with antibiotics. Recommendations for treatment of endometritis following delivery includes clindamycin with gentamicin. Testing for and treating gonorrhea and chlamydia in those at risk is also recommended. Chronic disease may be treated with doxycycline. Outcomes with treatment are generally good. Rates of endometritis are about 2% following vaginal delivery, 10% following scheduled C-section, and 30% with rupture of membranes before C-section if preventative antibiotics are not used. The term "endomyometritis" may be used when inflammation of the endometrium and the myometrium is present. The condition is also relatively common in other animals such as cows.

  • Trichomonas vaginalis


    Trichomonas vaginalis is an anaerobic, flagellated protozoan parasite and the causative agent of trichomoniasis. It is the most common pathogenic protozoan infection of humans in industrialized countries. Infection rates between men and women are similar with women being symptomatic, while infections in men are usually asymptomatic. Transmission usually occurs via direct, skin-to-skin contact with an infected individual, most often through vaginal intercourse. The WHO has estimated that 160 million cases of infection are acquired annually worldwide. The estimates for North America alone are between 5 and 8 million new infections each year, with an estimated rate of asymptomatic cases as high as 50%. Usually treatment consists of metronidazole and tinidazole.

  • Posthitis


    Posthitis (pronounced pos-THI-tis) is the inflammation of the foreskin (prepuce) of the human penis. It is characterised by swelling and redness on the skin and it may be accompanied by a smelly discharge. PosthitisThe term posthitis comes from the Greek "posthe", meaning foreskin, and "-itis", meaning inflammation.

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