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  • Azithromycin

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    Azithromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes middle ear infections, strep throat, pneumonia, traveler's diarrhea, and certain other intestinal infections. It may also be used for a number of sexually transmitted infections including chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. Along with other medications, it may also be used for malaria. It can be taken by mouth or intravenously with doses once per day. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and upset stomach. An allergic reaction or a type of diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile is possible. No harm has been found with its use during pregnancy. Its safety during breastfeeding is not confirmed, but it is likely safe. Azithromycin is an azalide, a type of macrolide antibiotic. It works by decreasing the production of protein, thus stopping bacterial growth. Azithromycin was first discovered in 1980. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication and is sold under many trade names worldwide. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.18 to 2.98 per dose. In the United States it is about 4 for a course of treatment . In 2016 it was the 49th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 15 million prescriptions.

  • Clarithromycin

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    Clarithromycin, sold under the brand name Biaxin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections. This includes strep throat, pneumonia, skin infections, H. pylori infection, and Lyme disease, among others. Clarithromycin can be taken by mouth as a pill or liquid. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, headaches, and diarrhea. Severe allergic reactions are rare. Liver problems have been reported. It may cause harm if taken during pregnancy. It is in the macrolide class and works by decreasing protein production of some bacteria. Clarithromycin was developed in 1980. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Clarithromycin is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between US$0.13 and $0.79 per dose. In the United States it is moderately expensive at $50–100 for a course of treatment. It is made from erythromycin and is chemically known as 6-O-methylerythromycin.

  • Peritonsillar abscess

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    Peritonsillar abscess (PTA), also known as a quinsy, is pus due to an infection behind the tonsil. Symptoms include fever, throat pain, trouble opening the mouth, and a change to the voice. Pain is usually worse on one side. Complications may include blockage of the airway or aspiration pneumonitis. They are typically due to infection by a number of types of bacteria. Often it follows streptococcal pharyngitis. They do not typically occur in those who have had a tonsillectomy. Diagnosis is usually based on the symptoms. Medical imaging may be done to rule out complications. Treatment is by removing the pus, antibiotics, sufficient fluids, and pain medication. Steroids may also be useful. Admission to hospital is generally not needed. In the United States about 3 per 10,000 people per year are affected. Young adults are most commonly affected.

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