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  • Rabeprazole

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    Rabeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that suppresses gastric acid production in the stomach. It has several medical uses: the management of conditions that involve excess gastric acid production (e.g. Zollinger–Ellison syndrome), conditions that are worsened by gastric acid (e.g. ulcerations of the gastrointestinal tract), and conditions involving prolonged exposure to gastric acid (e.g. symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease). Rabeprazole's adverse effects tend to be mild but can be serious, including deficiencies in essential nutrients, rare incidences of liver and bone damage, and dangerous rashes. Rabeprazole can theoretically contribute to numerous drug interactions, mediated both through its metabolic properties and its direct effect on acid in the stomach, though its potential for clinically meaningful drug interactions is low. Like other medications in the proton pump inhibitor class, rabeprazole's mechanism of action involves the permanent inhibition of proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for gastric acid production. Rabeprazole has a number of chemical metabolites, though it is primarily degraded by non-enzymatic metabolism and excreted in the urine. Genetic differences in a person's drug-metabolizing enzymes may affect a person's response to rabeprazole therapy, though this is unlikely in comparison to other proton pump inhibitors. Rabeprazole is marketed around in the world in a variety of combinations and brand name products.

  • Pantoprazole

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    Pantoprazole, first sold under the brand name Protonix, is a medication used for the treatment of stomach ulcers, short-term treatment of erosive esophagitis due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis, and pathological hypersecretory conditions including Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. It may also be used along with other medications to eliminate Helicobacter pylori. It is available by mouth and by injection into a vein. Common side effects include headache, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and joint pain. More serious side effects may include severe allergic reactions, a type of chronic inflammation known as atrophic gastritis, Clostridium difficile infection, low magnesium, and vitamin B-12 deficiency. Use in pregnancy appears to be safe. Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that decreases gastric acid secretion. It works by inactivating (H+/K+)-ATPase function in the stomach. Study of pantoprazole began in 1985 and it came into medical use in Germany in 1994. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost of the pills in the United States as of 2018 is less than US$0.10 per dose. In the United Kingdom this amount costs less than 0.05 pounds, while the intravenous formulation costs about 5 pounds a dose. In 2016 it was the 25th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 25 million prescriptions.

  • Lansoprazole

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    Lansoprazole, sold under the brand name Prevacid among others, is a medication which inhibits the stomach's production of gastric acid. There is no evidence that its effectiveness is different from that of other PPIs. Lansoprazole, given through a nasogastric tube, effectively controls pH inside the stomach and is an alternative to intravenous pantoprazole in people who are unable to swallow solid-dose formulations. Lansoprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) in the same pharmacologic class as omeprazole. Lansoprazole has been marketed for many years and is one of several PPIs available. It is a racemic 1:1 mixture of the enantiomers dexlansoprazole (Dexilant, formerly named Kapidex) and levolansoprazole. Dexlansoprazole is an enantiomerically pure active ingredient of a commercial drug as a result of the enantiomeric shift. Lansoprazole's plasma elimination half-life (1.5 h) is not proportional to the duration of the drug's effects to the person (i.e. gastric acid suppression). The effects of the medication last for over 24 hours after it has been used for a day or more. It is manufactured by a number of companies worldwide under several brand names. In the United States, it was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1995. Prevacid patent protection expired on November 10, 2009.

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