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  • Middle name

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    First/given, middle, and last/family/surname diagram with John Fitzgerald Kennedy as example. This shows a structure typical for English-speaking cultures (and some others). Other cultures use other structures for full names. In several cultures, a middle name is a portion of a personal name that is written between the person's given name and their surname. A person may be given a middle name regardless of whether it's necessary to distinguish them from other people with the same given name and surname. In cultures where a given name is expected to precede the surname, additional names are likely to be placed after the given name and before the surname, and thus called middle names. In English-speaking American culture, that term is often applied (arguably mistakenly) to names occupying that position even if the bearer would insist that that name is being mistakenly called a "middle name", and is actually (to mention several types of common cases): part of a two-word given name (e.g. Mary Anne, about Mary Anne Clarke, and "Joe Bob Briggs"), a maiden name (e.g. Rodham), a patronymic (e.g. Sergeyevich), a baptismal name (e.g. "Christopher" invoking Saint Christopher), or a maternal surname (such as in Portuguese and Brazilian names).In the United States, such names are specifically referred to as middle names; in most other countries, as far as they are given names and not, for example, patronymics, they would simply be regarded as second, third etc. given names. In the U.S., the "middle name" is often abbreviated to the middle initial (e.g. Mary Lee Bianchi becomes Mary L. Bianchi, which is usually standard for signatures) or omitted entirely in everyday use (e.g. just Mary Bianchi). An individual may have more than one middle name, or none. In the United Kingdom, for comparison, she would usually be referred to as either Mary Bianchi, M. L. Bianchi or Mary Lee Bianchi, or she may choose Lee Bianchi, and informally there may be familiar shortenings. It is debatable how long multiple given names have existed in English-speaking countries, but it is certain that among royalty and aristocracy the practice existed by the late 17th century (and possibly earlier), as exemplified in the name of the Stuart pretender James Francis Edward Stuart (1688–1766). Despite their relatively long existence in North America, the phrase "middle name" was not recorded until 1835, in the periodical Harvardiana. The use of multiple middle names has been somewhat impeded recently by the increased use of computer databases that occasionally allow for only a single middle name or more commonly a middle initial in storing personal records, effectively preventing people with multiple middle names from being listed in such databases under their full name. This is worsened by longer compound names, like María del Pilar Pereyra or María de las Nieves García. The abbreviation "N.M.N." (no middle name) or "N.M.I." (no middle initial), with or without periods, is sometimes used in formal documents in the United States, where a middle initial or name is expected but the person does not have one. The middle name can also be a maiden name. Since 1905, "middle name" has also developed a figurative usage meaning a notable or outstanding attribute of a person, as in the phrase "discretion is my middle name."

  • List of most popular given names

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    The most popular given names vary nationally, regionally, and culturally. Lists of widely used given names can consist of those most often bestowed upon infants born within the last year, thus reflecting the current naming trends, or else be composed of the personal names occurring most within the total population.

  • Pakistani name

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    A Pakistani name () consists of a given name, sometimes a middle name, and a surname. Pakistani names vary depending upon ethnicity and spoken language.

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