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  • Wheel alignment


    Wheel alignment, sometimes referred to as breaking or tracking, is part of standard automobile maintenance that consists of adjusting the angles of wheels to the car manufacturer specifications. The purpose of these adjustments is to reduce tire wear, and to ensure that vehicle travel is straight and true (without "pulling" to one side). Alignment angles can also be altered beyond the maker's specifications to obtain a specific handling characteristic. Motorsport and off-road applications may call for angles to be adjusted well beyond "normal", for a variety of reasons. An increasing number of modern vehicles have advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) such as electronic stability control, anti-lock brakes, lane departure warning, adaptive cruise control and traction control. These systems can be affected by mechanical alignment adjustments. This has led many manufacturers to require electronic resets for these systems after a mechanical alignment is performed.

  • Toe (automotive)


    300px In automotive engineering, toe, also known as tracking, is the symmetric angle that each wheel makes with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, as a function of static geometry, and kinematic and compliant effects. This can be contrasted with steer, which is the antisymmetric angle, i.e. both wheels point to the left or right, in parallel (roughly). Negative toe, or toe out, is the front of the wheel pointing away from the centerline of the vehicle. Positive toe, or toe in, is the front of the wheel pointing towards the centerline of the vehicle. Toe can be measured in linear units, at the front or rear of the tire, or as an angular deflection.

  • Tire balance


    25 g zinc tire weightTire balance, also called tire unbalance or tire imbalance, describes the distribution of mass within an automobile tire or the entire wheel (including the rim) on which it is mounted. When the wheel rotates, asymmetries in its mass distribution may cause it to apply periodic forces and torques to the axle, which can cause ride disturbances, usually as vertical and lateral vibrations, and this may also cause the steering wheel to oscillate. The frequency and magnitude of this ride disturbance usually increases with speed, and vehicle suspensions may become excited when the rotating frequency of the wheel equals the resonant frequency of the suspension. Tire balance is measured in factories and repair shops by two methods: with static balancers and with dynamic balancers. Tires with large unbalances are downgraded or rejected. When tires are fitted to wheels at the point of sale, they are measured again on a balancing machine, and correction weights are applied to counteract their combined unbalance. Tires may be rebalanced if driver perceives excessive vibration. Tire balancing is distinct from wheel alignment.

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