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  • Civil service


    The civil service is independent of government also composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership. A civil servant or public servant is a person employed in the public sector on behalf of a government department or agency. A civil servant or public servant's first priority is to represent the interests of citizens. The extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown (national government) employees are referred to as civil servants whereas county or city employees are not. Many consider the study of service to be a part of the field of public administration. Workers in "non-departmental public bodies" (sometimes called "Quangos") may also be classed as civil servants for the purpose of statistics and possibly for their terms and conditions. Collectively a state's civil servants form its civil service or public service.

  • Minimum wage in the United States


    Minimum wage by U.S. state, the District of Columbia, and territory versus the federal rate of $7.25 per hour as of January 1, 2018: The minimum wage in the United States is set by US labor law and a range of state and local laws. Employers generally have to pay workers the highest minimum wage prescribed by federal, state, and local law. Since July 24, 2009, the federal government has mandated a nationwide minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. As of January 2018, there were 29 states with a minimum wage higher than the federal minimum. From 2017 to 2018, eight states increased their minimum wage levels through automatic adjustments, while increases in eleven other states occurred through referendum or legislative action. Using 2018 inflation-adjusted dollars, the federal minimum wage peaked at $11.77 per hour in 1968. If the minimum wage in 1968 had kept up with labor's productivity growth, it would have reached $19.33 in 2017. There is a racial difference in support for a higher minimum wage with most Black and Latino individuals supporting a $15.00 federal minimum wage, and 54% of Whites opposing it. In 2015, about 3% of White, Asian, and Latino workers earned the federal minimum wage or less. Amongst Black workers, the percentage was about 4%.

  • Midd-West School District


    Midd-West School District (MWSD) is a midsized, rural, public school district located in the borough of Middleburg in Snyder County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The Midd-West School District encompasses approximately . Midd-West School District serves: Beavertown, McClure, Beaver Springs, Adams Township, Beaver Township, Center Township, Franklin Township, Middlecreek Township, Perry Township, Spring Township, West Beaver Township and West Perry Township. According to 2000 federal census data, it served a resident population of 16,531. Per the US Census Bureau by 2010, the District's population increased to 17,470 people. According to the Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center, 47.1% of the District's pupils lived at 185% or below the Federal Poverty Level as shown by their eligibility for the federal free or reduced price school meal programs in 2012. Midd-West School District residents' per capita income was $15,358 in 2009, while the median family income was $39,303 a year. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, Midd-West School District had 775 students receiving free or reduced-price lunches due to low family income in the 2007-08 school year.

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