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  • Filtration


    Diagram of simple filtration: oversize particles in the feed cannot pass through the lattice structure of the filter, while fluid and small particles pass through, becoming filtrate.Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass. The fluid that passes through is called the filtrate. In physical filters oversize solids in the fluid are retained and in biological filters particulates are trapped and ingested and metabolites are retained and removed. However, the separation is not complete; solids will be contaminated with some fluid and filtrate will contain fine particles (depending on the pore size, filter thickness and biological activity). Filtration occurs both in nature and in engineered systems; there are biological, geological, and industrial forms. For example, in animals (including humans), renal filtration removes wastes from the blood, and in water treatment and sewage treatment, undesirable constituents are removed by absorption into a biological film grown on or in the filter medium, as in slow sand filtration.

  • Electrofiltration


    Electrofiltration is a method that combines membrane filtration and electrophoresis in a dead-end process. Electrofiltration is regarded as an appropriate technique for concentration and fractionation of biopolymers. The film formation on the filter membrane which hinders filtration can be minimized or completely avoided by the application of electric field, improving filtration’s performance and increasing selectivity in case of fractionation. This approach reduces significantly the expenses for downstream processing in bioprocesses.

  • Oil filter


    Spin-on oil filter, showing seal and screw-on thread Spin-on oil filter on a Saab 9-5 An oil filter is a filter designed to remove contaminants from engine oil, transmission oil, lubricating oil, or hydraulic oil. Oil filters are used in many different types of hydraulic machinery. A chief use of the oil filter is in internal-combustion engines in on- and off-road motor vehicles, light aircraft, and various naval vessels. Other vehicle hydraulic systems, such as those in automatic transmissions and power steering, are often equipped with an oil filter. Gas turbine engines, such as those on jet aircraft, also require the use of oil filters. Aside from these uses, oil production, transport, and recycling facilities also employ filters in the manufacturing process.

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