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  • Impetigo


    Impetigo is a bacterial infection that involves the superficial skin. The most common presentation is yellowish crusts on the face, arms, or legs. Less commonly there may be large blisters which affect the groin or armpits. The lesions may be painful or itchy. Fever is uncommon. It is typically due to either Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. Risk factors include attending day care, crowding, poor nutrition, diabetes mellitus, contact sports, and breaks in the skin such as from mosquito bites, eczema, scabies, or herpes. With contact it can spread around or between people. Diagnosis is typically based on the symptoms and appearance. Prevention is by hand washing, avoiding people who are infected, and cleaning injuries. Treatment is typically with antibiotic creams such as mupirocin or fusidic acid. Antibiotics by mouth, such as cephalexin, may be used if large areas are affected. Antibiotic-resistant forms have been found. Impetigo affected about 140 million people (2% of the world population) in 2010. It can occur at any age, but is most common in young children. In some places the condition is also known as "school sores". Without treatment people typically get better within three weeks. Complications may include cellulitis or poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. The name is from the Latin impetere meaning "attack".

  • Discoid lupus erythematosus


    Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE or discoid lupus) is the most common type of chronic cutaneous lupus (CCLE), an autoimmune skin condition on the lupus erythematosus spectrum of illnesses. It presents with red, inflamed, coin-shaped patches of skin with a scaling and crusty appearance, most often on the scalp, cheeks, and ears. Hair loss may occur if the lesions are on the scalp. The lesions can then develop severe scarring, and the centre areas may appear lighter in color with a rim darker than the normal skin. These lesions can last for years without treatment. Of note, patients with systemic lupus erythematous develop discoid lupus lesions with some frequency. However, patients who present initially with discoid lupus infrequently develop systemic lupus. Discoid lupus can be divided into localized, generalized, and childhood discoid lupus. The lesions are diagnosed by biopsy. Patients are first treated with sunscreen and topical steroids. If this does not work, an oral medication--most likely hydroxycloroquine or a related medication--can be tried.

  • Crust (dermatology)


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