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  • Urinary incontinence

    serch.it?q=Urinary-incontinence

    Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine. It is a common and distressing problem, which may have a large impact on quality of life. It has been identified as an important issue in geriatric health care. The term enuresis is often used to refer to urinary incontinence primarily in children, such as nocturnal enuresis (bed wetting). Pelvic surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause are major risk factors. Urinary incontinence is often a result of an underlying medical condition but is under-reported to medical practitioners. There are four main types of incontinence: Urge incontinence due to an overactive bladder Stress incontinence due to poor closure of the bladder Overflow incontinence due to either poor bladder contraction or blockage of the urethra Functional incontinence due to medications or health problems making it difficult to reach the bathroomTreatments include surgery, pelvic floor muscle training, bladder training, and electrical stimulation. The benefit of medications is small and long term safety is unclear. It is more common in older women.

  • Norfloxacin

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    Norfloxacin is a synthetic antibacterial agent that belongs to the class of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. It is used to treat urinary tract infections, gynecological infections, inflammation of the prostate gland, gonorrhea and bladder infection. Eye drops were approved for use in children older than one year of age. This pharmaceutic is sold under the brand names Chibroxin and Noroxin. Norfloxacin is associated with a number of rare serious adverse reactions as well as spontaneous tendon ruptures and irreversible peripheral neuropathy. Tendon problems may manifest long after therapy had been completed and in severe cases may result in lifelong disabilities.

  • Purple urine bag syndrome

    serch.it?q=Purple-urine-bag-syndrome

    The primary way in which purple urine bag syndrome presents is through urine with a purplish discoloration accumulating in a catheterized patient's collection bag.Purple urine bag syndrome, or PUBS is a medical syndrome where purple discoloration of urine occurs in people with urinary catheters and co-existent urinary tract infection. Bacteria in the urine produce the enzyme indoxyl phosphatase. This converts indoxyl sulfate in the urine into the red and blue colored compounds indirubin and indigo. The most commonly implicated bacteria are Providencia stuartii, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Morganella morganii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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