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  • Ganglion cyst

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    A ganglion cyst is a fluid filled lump associated with a joint or tendon sheath. They most often occur at the back of the wrist followed by the front of the wrist. Onset is often over months. Typically there are no further symptoms. Occasionally pain or numbness may occur. Complications may include carpal tunnel syndrome. The cause is unknown. The underlying mechanism is believed to involve an outpouching of the synovial membrane. Risk factors include gymnastics. Diagnosis is typically based on examination with light shining through the lesion being supportive. Medical imaging may be done to rule out other potential causes. Treatment options include watchful waiting, splinting the affected joint, needle aspiration, or surgery. About half the times they resolve on their own. About 3 per 10,000 people newly develop ganglion of the wrist or hand a year. They most commonly occur in young and middle aged females. Trying to treat the lesion by hitting it with a book is discouraged.

  • Sebaceous cyst

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    A sebaceous cyst is a term commonly used to refer to either: Epidermoid cysts (also termed epidermal cysts, infundibular cyst), or Pilar cysts (also termed trichelemmal cysts, isthmus-catagen cysts).Both of the above types of cyst contain keratin, not sebum, and neither originates from sebaceous glands. Epidermoid cysts originate in the epidermis and pilar cysts originate from hair follicles. Therefore, technically speaking they are not sebaceous cysts. "True" sebaceous cysts, cysts which originate from sebaceous glands and which contain sebum, are relatively rare and are known as steatocystoma simplex or, if multiple, as steatocystoma multiplex. Medical professionals have suggested that the term sebaceous cyst be avoided since it can be misleading. In practice, however, the term is still often used for epidermoid and pilar cysts.

  • Dupuytren's contracture

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    Dupuytren's contracture is a condition in which one or more fingers become permanently bent in a flexed position. It usually begins as small hard nodules just under the skin of the palm. It then worsens over time until the fingers can no longer be straightened. While typically not painful some aching or itching may be present. The ring finger followed by the little and middle fingers are most commonly affected. It can interfere with preparing food, writing, and other activities. The cause is unknown. Risk factors include family history, alcoholism, smoking, thyroid problems, liver disease, diabetes, previous hand trauma, and epilepsy. The underlying mechanism involves the formation of abnormal connective tissue within the palmar fascia. Diagnosis is usually based on symptoms. Initial treatment is typically with steroid injections into the affected area and physical therapy. Among those who worsen, clostridial collagenase injections or surgery may be tried. While radiation therapy is used to treat this condition, the evidence for this use is poor. The condition may recur despite treatment. Dupuytren's most often occurs in males over the age of 50. It mostly affects white people and is rare among Asians and Africans. In the United States about 5% of people are affected at some point in time, while in Norway about 30% of men over 60 years old have the condition. In the United Kingdom, about 20% of people over 65 have some form of the disease. It is named after Guillaume Dupuytren, who first described the underlying mechanism in 1833.

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