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  • Sleeping while on duty


    A security officer sleeping on dutySleeping while on duty or sleeping on the job refers to falling asleep while on the time clock or equivalent, or else while responsible for performing some active or passive job duty. While in some jobs, this is a minor transgression or not even worthy of sanctioning, in other workplaces, this is considered gross misconduct and may be grounds for disciplinary action, including possible termination of employment. Recently however, there has been a movement in support of sleeping, or napping at work, with scientific studies highlighting health and productivity benefits, and over 6% of employers in some countries providing facilities to do so. In some types of work, such as firefighting or live-in caregiving, sleeping at least part of the shift may be an expected part of paid work time. While some employees who sleep while on duty in violation do so intentionally and hope not to get caught, others intend in good faith to stay awake, and accidentally doze. Sleeping while on duty is such an important issue that it is addressed in the employee handbook in some workplaces.

  • Neuroscience of sleep


    Sleeping Princess: An early 20th-century painting by Victor Vasnetsov The neuroscience of sleep is the study of the neuroscientific and physiological basis of the nature of sleep and its functions. Traditionally, sleep has been studied as part of psychology and medicine. The study of sleep from a neuroscience perspective grew to prominence with advances in technology and proliferation of neuroscience research from the second half of the twentieth century. The fact that organisms daily spend hours of their time in sleep and that sleep deprivation can have disastrous effects ultimately leading to death, demonstrate the importance of sleep. For a phenomenon so important, the purposes and mechanisms of sleep are only partially understood, so much so that as recently as the late 1990s it was quipped: "The only known function of sleep is to cure sleepiness". However, the development of improved imaging techniques like EEG, PET and fMRI, along with high computational power have led to an increasingly greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying sleep. The fundamental questions in the neuroscientific study of sleep are: What are the correlates of sleep i.e.

  • Sleep in non-human animals


    A sleeping catSleep in non-human animals refers to a behavioral and physiological state characterized by altered consciousness, reduced responsiveness to external stimuli, and homeostatic regulation. Sleep is observed in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and some fish, and, in some form, in insects and even in simpler animals such as nematodes. The internal circadian clock promotes sleep at night for diurnal organisms (such as humans) and in the day for nocturnal organisms (such as rodents). Sleep patterns vary widely among species. It appears to be a requirement for all mammals and most other animals.

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