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  • Sjögren–Larsson syndrome

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    Sjögren–Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an autosomal recessive form of ichthyosis apparent at birth. Sjögren–Larsson syndrome is a rare autosomal, recessive, neurocutaneous disease. This disease can be identified by a triad of medical disorders. The first is ichthyosis, which is a buildup of skin to form a scale-like covering that causes dry skin and other problems. The second identifier is paraplegia which is characterized by leg spasms. The final identifier is intellectual delay. The gene of SLS is found on chromosome 17. In order for a child to receive SLS both parents must be carriers of the SLS gene. If they are carriers their child has a ¼ chance of getting the disease. In 1957 Sjogren and Larsson proposed that the Swedes with the disease all descended from a common ancestor 600 years ago. Today only 30–40 persons in Sweden have this disease.

  • Felty's syndrome

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    Felty's syndrome, also called Felty syndrome, (FS) is rare autoimmune disease characterized by the triad of rheumatoid arthritis, enlargement of the spleen and too few neutrophils in the blood. The condition is more common in those aged 50–70 years, specifically more prevalent in females than males, and more so in Caucasians than those of African descent. It is a deforming disease that causes many complications for the individual.

  • Sjögren syndrome

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    Sjögren syndrome (SjS, SS) is a long-term autoimmune disease that affects the body's moisture-producing glands. Primary symptoms are a dry mouth and dry eyes. Other symptoms can include dry skin, vaginal dryness, a chronic cough, numbness in the arms and legs, feeling tired, muscle and joint pains, and thyroid problems. Those affected are at an increased risk (5%) of lymphoma. While the exact cause is unclear, it is believed to involve a combination of genetics and an environmental trigger such as exposure to a virus or bacteria. It can occur independently of other health problems (primary Sjögren syndrome) or as a result of another connective tissue disorder (secondary Sjögren syndrome). The inflammation that results progressively damages the glands. Diagnosis is by biopsy of moisture-producing glands and blood tests looking for specific antibodies. On biopsy there are typically lymphocytes within the glands. Treatment is directed at the person's symptoms. For dry eyes artificial tears, medications to reduce inflammation, punctal plugs, or surgery to shut the tear ducts, may be tried. For a dry mouth, chewing gum (preferably sugar free), sipping water, or a saliva substitute may be used. In those with joint or muscle pain, ibuprofen may be used. Medications that can cause dryness, such as antihistamines, may also be stopped. The disease was described in 1933 by Henrik Sjögren, after whom it is named; however, a number of earlier descriptions of people with the symptoms exist. Between 0.2% and 1.2% of the population are affected, with half having the primary form and half the secondary form. Females are affected about ten times as often as males and it commonly begins in middle age; however, anyone can be affected. Among those without other autoimmune disorders, life expectancy is unchanged.

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